Niagara Power Project FERC No. 2216

 

USE OF BUCKHORN MARSH AND GRAND ISLAND TRIBUTARIES BY

NORTHERN PIKE FOR SPAWNING AND AS A NURSERY

 

HTML Format.  Text only

 

Prepared for: New York Power Authority 

Prepared by:  New York Power Authority and Gomez and Sullivan Enigeers, P.C.

 

August 2005

 

___________________________________________________

 

Copyright © 2005 New York Power Authority

 

EXECUTIVE SUMMARY

A fish study was conducted for the New York Power Authority during 2003 in Buckhorn Marsh Restoration Project (BMRP), Woods Creek, Gun Creek, Spicer Creek, and Big Six Mile Creek as part of the process for relicensing the Niagara Power Project. BMRP includes two distinct portions of the former Burnt Ship Creek channel: 1) Burnt Ship Creek - from the mouth of the creek to a weir located near I-190 (west weir) and 2) Buckhorn Marsh impoundment - from the west weir to a weir located about 1,720 feet farther east and on the west bank of Woods Creek.   The objectives were to: 1) determine whether northern pike, largemouth bass, and yellow perch used BMRP for spawning and as a nursery, and if so, estimate how many used it and establish whether they traversed either of the two weirs in BMRP; 2) compare the use of BMRP by northern pike for spawning and as a nursery with that of Woods Creek, Gun Creek, Spicer Creek, and Big Six Mile Creek; 3) determine the relative abundance and composition of all fish species in BMRP and Woods Creek; and 4) evaluate the need to increase fish passage into or out of BMRP as an approach for promoting its use by northern pike for spawning and as a nursery while maintaining BMRP goals for wildlife species.

Based on the data collected during 2003, the following inferences and conclusions are  reasonable:

·         BMRP is used by northern pike and largemouth bass for spawning and as a nursery and by yellow perch as a nursery.

·         Within BMRP, Buckhorn Marsh impoundment is used more extensively than Burnt Ship Creek by yearling and older northern pike for spawning and by YOY northern pike as a nursery but less extensively than Burnt Ship Creek by YOY largemouth bass as a nursery. 

·         Within BMRP, Buckhorn Marsh impoundment was not used by yellow perch, and Burnt Ship Creek was lightly used by yellow perch YOY as a nursery. 

·         Northern pike do not migrate out of Buckhorn Marsh impoundment and rarely migrate into it.

·         Largemouth bass and yellow perch do not migrate into or out of Buckhorn Marsh impoundment. 

·         Migration of northern pike, largemouth bass, and yellow perch into Burnt Ship Creek from the Niagara River and out of Burnt Ship Creek to the Niagara River is limited by dense cattail stands.

·         Migration of northern pike and largemouth bass into Burnt Ship Creek from Buckhorn Marsh impoundment is limited by water elevations below the top of the weir separating Burnt Ship Creek and Buckhorn Marsh impoundment.

·         Fewer yearling and older northern pike use Buckhorn Marsh impoundment than Woods Creek and Gun Creek but more used Buckhorn Marsh impoundment than Burnt Ship Creek, Big Six Mile Creek, and Spicer Creek.

·         The species composition and relative abundance of fish in Buckhorn Marsh impoundment and in Burnt Ship Creek differ from those of fish in Woods Creek and appear to reflect limited access from the Niagara River and lower water quality. 

·         Increasing fish passage into Buckhorn Marsh impoundment is not needed to promote its use by northern pike for spawning and as a nursery if the objective is to maintain a self-sustaining population; doing so might increase competition among northern pike.

·         Increasing passage of northern pike out of Buckhorn Marsh impoundment after spawning may be needed to reduce population density if the objective is to maintain a self-sustaining population in the impoundment with good growth rates.

·         If the objective is to use Buckhorn Marsh impoundment as seasonal spawning and nursery habitat for northern pike, then increasing fish passage into and out of the impoundment annually would be needed.

·         Increasing fish passage into or out of Buckhorn Marsh impoundment would likely involve lowering the stoplog height of at least one weir during the spring and summer.

·         Lowering the stoplog height of either weir would lower the water level in Buckhorn Marsh impoundment and make it more susceptible to daily changes in the water level of the Niagara River, which would not help maintain BMRP goals for wildlife species or improve the spawning and nursery habitat of the impoundment.

 

TECHNICAL SUMMARY

A fish study was conducted for the New York Power Authority during 2003 in Buckhorn Marsh Restoration Project (BMRP), Woods Creek, Gun Creek, Spicer Creek, and Big Six Mile Creek as part of the process for relicensing the Niagara Power Project.  BMRP includes two distinct portions of the former Burnt Ship Creek channel: 1) Burnt Ship Creek - from the mouth of the creek to a weir located near I-190 (the west weir) and 2) Buckhorn Marsh impoundment - from the west weir to a weir located about 1,720 feet farther east and on the west bank of Woods Creek (the east weir).  The objectives were to: 1) determine whether northern pike, largemouth bass, and yellow perch used BMRP for spawning and as a nursery, and if so, estimate how many used it and establish whether they traversed either of the two weirs in BMRP; 2) compare the use of BMRP by northern pike for spawning and as a nursery with that of Woods Creek, Gun Creek, Spicer Creek, and Big Six Mile Creek; 3) determine the relative abundance and composition of all fish species in BMRP and Woods Creek; and 4) evaluate the need to increase fish passage into or out of BMRP as an approach for promoting its use by northern pike for spawning and as a nursery while maintaining BMRP goals for wildlife species.

From the last week in March through the first week in July, fyke netting and electrofishing were conducted to catch yearling and older fish.  From June through September, seining was conducted to catch young-of-the-year (YOY).  A PIT tag was implanted in healthy yearling and older northern pike, largemouth bass, and yellow perch before the fish were released.  Partial fin clips were applied to healthy YOY and to some yearling and older northern pike, largemouth bass, and yellow perch that were not tagged.

BMRP is used by northern pike and largemouth bass for spawning and as a nursery and by yellow perch as a nursery. Within BMRP, Buckhorn Marsh impoundment was used more extensively than Burnt Ship Creek by YOY and by yearling and older northern pike but less extensively than Burnt Ship Creek by YOY largemouth bass. In Buckhorn Marsh impoundment, fyke netting caught 190 yearling and older northern pike.  Of those, 72 were tagged; 46% of which were in spawning condition.  The population size of yearling and older northern pike during the period March 28 through May 2, when northern pike could not be legally harvested, was 87 using the Schnabel method and 85 using the Schumacher and Eschmeyer method.  Seining in Buckhorn Marsh impoundment caught 77 YOY northern pike; 72 were finclipped. The population size of YOY northern pike during September was 204 using the Schnabel method and 241 using the Schumacher and Eschmeyer method.  In Burnt Ship Creek, fyke netting caught two yearling and older northern pike; both were tagged.  One of those fish was in spawning condition and neither was recaptured.  Seining in Burnt Ship Creek caught five YOY northern pike; all were finclipped and none were recaptured.  In Buckhorn Marsh impoundment, fyke netting caught 7 yearling and older largemouth bass, all of which were tagged, and 73 YOY largemouth bass, all of which were finclipped; none of these were recaptured.  In Burnt Ship Creek, fyke netting caught 6 yearling and older largemouth bass; all were tagged, and seining caught 130 YOY, 67 of which were finclipped.  Only one small yellow perch was caught by fyke netting in Burnt Ship Creek.

Northern pike did not migrate out of Buckhorn Marsh impoundment and rarely migrated into it based on results from finclipping and tagging.  None of the 72 YOY northern pike finclipped, and none of the 72 yearling and older northern pike tagged, inside Buckhorn Marsh impoundment were recaptured outside.  Only 1 yearling and older northern pike tagged in Woods Creek and none tagged elsewhere outside Buckhorn Marsh impoundment were recaptured inside.  No YOY northern pike finclipped outside Buckhorn Marsh impoundment were recaptured inside.

Largemouth bass did not migrate into or out of Buckhorn Marsh impoundment based on results from finclipping and tagging.  None of the 73 YOY largemouth bass finclipped and none of the 7 yearling and older largemouth bass tagged inside Buckhorn Marsh impoundment were recaptured outside.  No largemouth bass finclipped outside Buckhorn Marsh impoundment were recaptured inside.

Migration of northern pike and largemouth bass into Burnt Ship Creek from the Niagara River and out of Burnt Ship Creek to the Niagara River was limited by dense cattail stands based on visual observation of habitat and the relatively small number of yearling and older fish caught.  An open channel did not exist from the mouth of Burnt Ship Creek upstream.  Only two yearling and older northern pike and four yearling and older largemouth bass were caught by fyke netting and electrofishing.

Migration of northern pike and largemouth bass into Burnt Ship Creek from Buckhorn Marsh impoundment was limited based on water levels at the west weir and results from finclipping and tagging.  The water elevation in Burnt Ship Creek never reached the top of the stoplogs in the west weir.  The water elevation in Buckhorn Marsh impoundment rarely reached the top of the stoplogs in the west weir.

More yearling and older northern pike used Woods Creek and Gun Creek than BMRP but more yearling and older northern pike used BMRP than Spicer Creek and Big Six Mile Creek.  Fyke netting and electrofishing caught 190 yearling and older northern pike in Woods Creek, 162 in Gun Creek, 26 in Spicer Creek, and 15 Big Six Mile Creek.  Of those, 163 were tagged in Woods Creek, 129 in Gun Creek, 24 in Spicer Creek, and 15 Big Six Mile Creek.  The peak population size of yearling and older northern pike in Woods Creek was 612 based on the Jolly-Seber 4-catch method and 528 based on the Bailey triple-catch method; in Gun Creek it was 255 based on the Jolly-Seber method and 159 based on the Bailey method. Seining caught 8 YOY northern pike in Woods Creek, 20 in Gun Creek, 17 in Big Six Mile Creek and 0 in Spicer Creek.

Increasing fish passage into Buckhorn Marsh impoundment during 2003 was not needed to promote its use by northern pike for spawning and as a nursery if the objective was to maintain a self-sustaining population in the impoundment; doing so would likely have been more detrimental than beneficial.  It appears that there is a self sustaining population in Buckhorn Marsh impoundment because migration of yearling and older northern pike into Buckhorn Marsh impoundment was rare and the mean length of both YOY and yearling and older northern pike in Buckhorn Marsh impoundment was significantly smaller than that of northern pike with direct access to the Niagara River.  The smaller mean length appears to reflect stunting caused by competition among northern pike, a combination of low DO levels and high temperatures in Buckhorn Marsh impoundment, or a combination of both. By the end of September, the mean length of YOY northern pike caught by seining in Buckhorn Marsh impoundment was 166 mm while that of YOY northern pike caught by seining in Woods Creek, Gun Creek, Spicer Creek, and Big Six Mile Creek combined was 229 mm.  The mean length of yearling and older northern pike caught by fyke netting and electrofishing and subsequently tagged in Buckhorn Marsh impoundment was 385 mm; it was 542 mm Woods Creek, 542 mm in Gun Creek, 548 mm in Spicer Creek, and 604 mm in Big Six Mile Creek. If competition were a factor responsible for the stunting of northern pike in Buckhorn Marsh impoundment, then increasing passage of northern pike into Buckhorn Marsh impoundment would have increased competition unless fish passage out of the impoundment was also increased.

If the objective was to use Buckhorn Marsh impoundment as seasonal spawning and nursery habitat for northern pike, then increasing fish passage into and out of the impoundment was needed.  However, this would likely have involved lowering the stoplog height of the east weir during the spring and summer, causing the water level of the impoundment to be lower and more susceptible to daily changes in the water level of the Niagara River.   The resulting water level regime would be inconsistent with the more stable and higher water levels needed to meet the BMRP goals for wildlife species. It would also have done little to improve the relatively poor spawning and nursery habitat of the impoundment. 

Increasing fish passage into Burnt Ship Creek during 2003 would likely have involved creating a more open channel, which would have promoted its use by northern pike for spawning and as a nursery because relatively few northern pike used it and access appeared to have been limited by dense stands of cattails.

 

 

ABBREVIATIONS

Agencies

NYSDEC         New York State Department of Environmental Conservation

USFWS            United States Fish and Wildlife Service

Units of Measure

C                      Celsius, Centigrade

cm                    centimeter

El.                    elevation

m                     meter

m                     milli (prefix for one-thousandth)

μ                      micro (prefix for one-millionth)

μmhos/cm         micromhos per centimeter

ml                     milliliter

mm                   millimeter

ppm                  parts per million

 

Environmental

DO                   dissolved oxygen

EAV                emergent aquatic vegetation

SAV                 submerged aquatic vegetation

YOY                young-of-the-year fish (i.e., less than one year old)

Miscellaneous

BMRP              Buckhorn Marsh Restoration Project

PIT                  Passive Integrated Transponder

 

 

1.0     INTRODUCTION

The New York State Department of Environmental Conservation (NYSDEC), New York State Office of Parks, U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, and Town of Grand Island, New York jointly funded and implemented the Buckhorn Marsh Restoration Project (BMRP).  BMRP was designed to restore and create a diversity of wetland habitat types in and near the former channel of Burnt Ship Creek. It entailed removing sediment from the former channel, creating new channels, and constructing weirs with removable stoplogs to establish more stable and higher water levels (Roblee 1998).   The goals of the project were to provide nesting, brooding, escape, and resting habitat for marsh birds and to re-establish habitat that northern pike (Esox lucius) could use for spawning and as a nursery.

  Buckhorn Marsh is located on the north end of Grand Island.  It extends from the Chippewa Channel of the Niagara River on the west to the Tonawanda Channel of the Niagara River on the east, separating Buckhorn Island to the north from the remainder of Grand Island to the south. (Anderson 1995).  The marsh includes: 1) two distinct portions of the former Burnt Ship Creek channel; from the mouth of Burnt Ship Creek to a weir (the west weir) located just east of I-190 (Burnt Ship Creek) and from the weir just east of I-190 to a weir (the east weir) located about 1,720 feet east, on the west bank of Woods Creek (Buckhorn Marsh impoundment); and 2) Woods Creek from the east weir to the mouth at the Niagara River (Figure 1.0-1).

During the relicensing process for the Niagara Power Project, NYSDEC and the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service (USFWS) expressed an interest in enhancing northern pike reproduction in BMRP.  However, there were no systematically collected data available to assess the use of BMRP for reproduction by northern pike.  As part of the alternative licensing process, the New York Power Authority (NYPA) agreed to conduct a study and collect data that could be used to inform settlement discussions.  NYPA agreed to fund such a study in 2003.  The initial objectives of the study were:

·         determine whether northern pike used BMRP for spawning and as a nursery, and if so,

·         estimate how many northern pike used it,

·         establish whether northern pike traversed the west weir or the east weir, and

evaluate the need to increase fish passage into or out of BMRP as an approach for promoting its use by northern pike for spawning and as a nursery while maintaining BMRP goals for wildlife species.

NYSDEC and USFWS subsequently requested that the study be expanded.  The objectives of the expanded study were to:

·         determine whether largemouth bass (Micropterus salmoides) and yellow perch (Perca flavescens) used BMRP for spawning and as a nursery, and if so,

·         estimate how many used it and whether they traversed the west weir or the east weir,

·         determine the relative abundance and composition of all fish species in BMRP and Woods Creek,

·         compare the use of BMRP by northern pike for spawning and as a nursery with that of Woods Creek, Big Six Mile Creek, Gun Creek, and Spicer Creek

 

Figure 1.0-1

Buckhorn Marsh Impoundment, Burnt Ship Creek and Woods Creek

 

2.0     METHODS

The Investigation Area for the study was BMRP, Woods Creek, Big Six Mile Creek, Gun Creek, and Spicer Creek (Figure 2.0-1).

2.1         Field Methods

The methods for conducting field sampling were detailed in a set of Standard Operating Procedures (Appendix A).  They were developed jointly by the New York Power Authority, Gomez and Sullivan, and Stantec Consulting Services, Inc., which conducted field sampling.

2.1.1        Yearling and Older Fish

2.1.1.1       Sampling

Sampling for spawning northern pike, largemouth bass, and yellow perch was scheduled to occur in BMRP and Woods Creek weekly from the first week in February - or as soon after the first week in February that ice did not prevent sampling, through July 3.  This period includes the reported spawning season for northern pike in the Niagara River – late-February to April (Harrison and Hadley 1983), yellow perch – mid-April to early-May, and largemouth bass – late-spring to early-summer (Scott and Crossman 1973).  Sampling for spawning northern pike was scheduled to occur in Gun Creek, Spicer Creek, and Big Six Mile Creek from the first week in February - or as soon after the first week in February that ice did not prevent sampling, through May.   Due to an unusually cold winter, fyke nets could not be set safely until ice melted during the last week in March and sampling for northern pike in Gun Creek, Spicer Creek, and Big Six Mile Creek was extended through the second week in June. 

Fyke nets were selected as the primary collection gear for spawning fish and were scheduled to be set for 72 consecutive hours per week.  Fyke nets collect northern pike, largemouth bass and yellow perch effectively when these fish are active during the spring; cause relatively little capture stress; can be fished 24 hours a day; could be deployed in all of the areas of interest in this study; and were used to collect fish during 2001 in Woods Creek, Gun Creek, Spicer Creek, and Big Six Mile Creek (Environnement Illimité 2002).  Because fyke nets could not be set safely until the last week in March and the spawning season for northern pike is reported to be early March through early April (Harrison and Hadley 1983), it was possible that the spawning season for northern pike would be very short in 2003.  Therefore, sampling was occasionally conducted seven days per week during late-March and April. 

Electrofishing was selected to supplement collections of northern pike, largemouth bass, and yellow perch made using fyke nets with the intent of sampling in areas between and around fyke nets and was scheduled to be done one day per week. Limited electrofishing began in late-February.

A fyke net measuring 4 feet in diameter at the mouth, with a 9-inch diameter fyke opening, a 50-foot long by 4 feet high lead, and 20-foot long by 4 feet high wings was used where water depth was 4 feet or greater.  A fyke net measuring 2.5 feet in diameter, with a 9-inch diameter fyke opening, a 50-foot long by 2.5 feet high lead, and 20-foot long by 2.5 feet high wings was used where water depth was less than 4 feet. Netting material was 1-inch bar mesh nylon with a dark coating to reduce net visibility and to keep algal growth to a minimum.

Electrofishing was done using a backpack electrofishing unit (Smith-Root model 15A) by wading in Spicer Creek and Gun Creek where the substrate was firm and from a 7-foot inflatable raft in Burnt Ship Creek where the substrate was extremely soft.  Electrofishing was done using a boat-mounted unit (either a Honda or Smith-Root generator, and an electrofisher Type VI or 2.5 GPP control box) in Woods Creek, Big Six Mile Creek, and Buckhorn Marsh impoundment.  The boat used for boat electrofishing was either 15 feet long or 18 feet long.

Six 4-foot fyke nets were set in Buckhorn Marsh impoundment (Figure 2.1-1).  On the east end, one net was set in a channel with its mouth facing the weir and wings extending to shore so that it could intercept fish if they migrated into the marsh from Woods Creek and another net was set just west of the net facing the weir, with its mouth facing away from the weir and wings extending to shore so that it could intercept fish migrating from the marsh to Woods Creek.  Two nets were set on the west end with their respective leads extending to shore, one net was set in the north channel facing east, and one was set in the south channel facing east to provide sampling throughout the marsh between the weirs.

Three 4-foot fyke nets were set in Woods Creek (Figure 2.1-1).  Between the east weir and the Niagara River, one net was set facing downstream to intercept fish entering the creek and one was set facing upstream to intercept fish leaving the creek.   Upstream of the east weir, one net was set facing downstream to intercept fish swimming past the weir.  On the first occasion that ice conditions permitted the setting of fyke nets (March 24, 2003), one of the three nets was set approximately 50 feet upstream of River Road, instead of immediately upstream of the east weir, for one twenty-four hour period.  No nets were set at this location afterwards.

One 4-foot fyke net and one 2.5-foot fyke net were set in Burnt Ship Creek with their leads extending to shore in a direction intended to intercept fish entering the creek (Figure 2.1-1). 

Two 2.5-foot fyke nets were set in both Gun (Figure 2.1-2) and Spicer Creeks (Figure 2.1-3), and two 4-foot fyke nets were set in Big Six Mile Creek (Figure 2.1-4).

2.1.1.2       Tagging and Handling

All yearling and older northern pike, yellow perch, largemouth bass and muskellunge  (Esox masquinongy) were scanned for a PIT tag and a coded wire tag.  Although it was not an objective of this study to determine the use of BMRP and the Grand Island tributaries by muskellunge, the species supports an important recreational fishery in the upper Niagara River and is known to be found in BMRP and the Grand Island tributaries. Therefore, muskellunge were measured and tagged opportunistically.  If a tag was not detected and the fish was not healthy, it was measured and returned to the water without being tagged.  If a PIT tag was detected, its number was recorded; if a coded wire tag was detected, its presence was recorded.  PIT tag numbers were unique and were the principal source of information on when and where a fish was caught and tagged.  Coded wire tags were used to help assess tag retention of PIT tags, along with visual observation of a scar at the insertion site for PIT tags. 

In Buckhorn Marsh impoundment, Burnt Ship Creek, and Woods Creek, if no tag was detected in a northern pike, largemouth bass, yellow perch, or muskellunge and the fish was healthy and equal to or greater than a minimum size (which ranged from 150 mm to 200 mm depending on the species and when during the sampling program that the fish was caught), the fish was measured and implanted with a PIT tag and a coded wire tag, unless the coded wire tag injector malfunctioned.  If the coded wire tag injector malfunctioned, a finclip was used.  In Gun Creek, Spicer Creek, and Big Six Mile Creek only northern pike were measured and tagged.

A PIT tag was inserted into the isthmus using a 24-gage needle (Figure 2.1.1.2-1).  Before implanting a PIT tag the tag number was recorded.    A coded wire tag was inserted into either the left or right cheek.  After tagging, the presence of the PIT tag and coded wire tag was verified using a PIT tag detector and a coded wire tag detector.  If either tag could not be detected in the fish, a second tag was inserted into the fish.  The fish were then returned to the water.

2.1.2        Young-of-the-Year Fish

2.1.2.1       Sampling

Seining was the primary method used for collecting young-of-the-year (YOY) fish.  Electrofishing was selected to supplement collections of northern pike, largemouth bass, and yellow perch made by seineing.  Seining was done from the first week of June through the last week of September one day per week in Buckhorn Marsh impoundment, Burnt Ship Creek, and Woods Creek collectively and one day per week in Spicer Creek, Gun Creek, and Big Six Mile Creek collectively. Electrofishing was also done from the first week of June through the last week of September one day per week in Buckhorn Marsh impoundment, Burnt Ship Creek, and Woods Creek collectively and one day per week in Spicer Creek, Gun Creek, and Big Six Mile Creek collectively. Seines were made of ¼ inch mesh, were 6 feet deep, and were either 20 feet or 50 feet long.  The 20-foot seine was used primarily in Gun Creek and Spicer Creek downstream of East River Road because the creeks are relatively narrow.  The 50-foot seine was used in all other areas.

2.1.2.2       Marking and Handling

Those northern pike, largemouth bass, yellow perch and muskellunge caught with seines were immediately placed into 5 gallon plastic buckets.  Young-of-the-year fish were marked according to Tables 2 and 3 in the Standard Operating Procedures in Appendix A.  Marks (fin clips) were applied to the fish using sharp, blunt-ended scissors.  Fish were not anesthetized.

2.1.3        Species Enumeration

In Buckhorn Marsh impoundment, Burnt Ship Creek, and Woods Creek all fish caught by fyke netting and seining were identified to species in the field where practicable and counted.  In Gun Creek, Spicer Creek, and Big Six Mile Creek, only northern pike, largemouth bass, yellow perch, and muskellunge were routinely counted; the presence of other species was noted.  Because electrofishing was used specifically to supplement the catch of northern pike, largemouth bass, and yellow perch, other species caught by electrofishing were not consistently enumerated (see Standard Operating Procedures in Appendix A).

2.1.4        Water Quality

Water quality measurements were taken at the surface immediately prior to seining, electrofishing, and tending fyke nets.  Dissolved oxygen and temperature were measured using a YSI Oxymeter; conductivity was measured using an Oakton EC Tester, and pH was measured using a Oakton pH Tester2.  All water quality equipment was calibrated according to the manufacturer’s specifications at the beginning and end of each day.  Specifications of the water quality meters are in Appendix A.

As part of another study, water surface elevations were collected on a 15-minute time step at 24 temporary locations during 2003 using In-Situ miniTROLL, Professional Model (30 psi) gauges.  Data in the present report are for four locations: BSC-03 (in Burnt Ship Creek approximately 150 feet west of the west weir), BHM-01 (in Buckhorn Marsh impoundment approximately 100 feet east of the west weir), BHM-02 (in Buckhorn Marsh impoundment approximately 150 feet west of the east weir), and WC-01 (in Woods Creek approximately 250 feet east of the east weir, Figure 2.1.4-1)

2.1.5        Habitat Characterization of the BMRP

To assess the fish spawning and nursery habitat in BMRP, data were collected along cross-sectional and longitudinal transects in Buckhorn Marsh impoundment and Burnt Ship Creek during late April 2003, before extensive growth of submerged aquatic vegetation (SAV) and emergent aquatic vegetation (EAV) was expected, and during August 2003, when SAV and EAV were expected to be at their peak. 

In Buckhorn Marsh impoundment, sixteen cross-sectional transects were established (Figure 2.1.5-1). The cross-sectional transects were perpendicular to the centerline of the channel. Each cross-sectional transect traversed the bankfull width of the channel or up to a point where fish passage would be precluded.  At approximately every 10 feet along each cross-sectional transect, water depth, substrate type, percent cover of each species of SAV and EAV (in 10% increments), approximate % decomposing vegetation (e.g., decomposing SAV, EAV or deciduous leaves) and instream and riparian cover were measured and recorded. The percent cover of SAV is presented as “sparse” (10, 20%), “moderately dense” (30, 40, 50%), “dense” (60, 70%) and “very dense” (80, 90, 100%).

In Burnt Ship Creek, a longitudinal transect was established along the channel centerline from the mouth at the Niagara River upstream to a foot path east of Route 190 (Figure 2.1.5-1).  The start and end of open water areas, EAV, SAV, or other unique habitats along the channel’s centerline were delineated.  Water depths and substrates were recorded every 100 feet, and at least one measurement in each emergent vegetation stand if the stand was less than 100 feet long, in all habitat types in an effort to determine pathways for fish passage.  Two cross-sectional transects were established in the open water channel of Burnt Ship Creek.  These transects were located near fyke net sites.  Data were collected as described for Buckhorn Marsh impoundment.

2.2         Analytical Methods

Analytical methods were developed by Dennis Dunning (Ph.D.) and John Magee (CFP), who also conducted the analyses and interpreted the results.

2.2.1        Population Estimates for Northern Pike

2.2.1.1       Buckhorn Marsh Impoundment

For Buckhorn Marsh impoundment, two multiple-census methods for closed populations were used for estimating the abundance of yearling and older northern pike: the Schumacher and Eschmeyer and the modified Schnabel (Ricker 1975).  They will produce unbiased estimates if the following conditions are met: 1) marked fish suffer the same natural mortality as the unmarked fish, 2) marked fish are as vulnerable to capture as the unmarked ones, 3) marked fish do not lose their mark, 4) marked fish become randomly mixed with unmarked fish or the distribution of fishing effort in subsequent sampling is proportional to the number of fish present in different parts of the body of water, 5) all marks are recognized and reported on recovery, and 6) there is only a negligible amount of recruitment to the catchable population during the time the recaptures were being made, i.e., the population is closed.  Additionally, to reduce the potential effects of angling, the population estimates covered the period from March 24, the first date that northern pike were tagged in Buckhorn Marsh impoundment through May 2, the day before the season for legally harvesting northern pike opened.

The best estimate of abundance N using the Schumacher and Eschmeyer method (equation 3.12 in Ricker 1975) is the reciprocal of:

 

where

N is the estimate of abundance,

Mt  is the total marked fish at large at the start of the tth day , i.e., the number previously marked less any accidentally killed at previous recaptures,

M is the sum of Mt , the total number marked,

Ct is the total number caught on day t,

Rt is the number of recaptures in the sample Ct,, and

R is the sum of Rt , the total recaptures during the period of the estimate.

The variance (equation 3.13 in Ricker 1975) is:

 

where m is the number of catches examined.  Instead of computing confidence limits directly for N, it is better to compute them for the more symmetrically distributed 1/N (Ricker 1975).  The variance of 1/N (equation 3.14 in Ricker 1975) is:

 

For computing confidence limits for 1/N, t-values were used corresponding to m-1 degrees of freedom.  Confidence limits for N were found by inverting those obtained for 1/N.

The best estimate of abundance N using the adjusted Schnabel method (equation 3.17 in Ricker 1975) is:

where approximate 95% confidence limits were calculated by considering R as a Poisson variable (from Appendix II in Ricker 1975):

 

2.2.1.2       Woods Creek and Gun Creek

For Woods Creek and Gun Creek, two multiple-census methods for open populations were used: Bailey’s triple catch method for small samples and the modified Jolly-Seber 4-catch method (Ricker 1975).  They will produce unbiased estimates if the first five conditions listed for the closed population methods are met.  The open population methods, unlike those for closed populations, allow the number of northern pike to change due to migration, mortality, recruitment or some combination of those.  Northern pike typically migrate into and out of spawning areas during the spring. 

Bailey’s triple catch method uses fish caught during three time periods.  During the first period (Time 1), fish are tagged. During Time 2, recaptures are noted, fish not previously tagged are tagged, and all fish are returned to the water.  During Time 3, recaptures from fish tagged during Time 1 and Time 2 are noted.  The best estimate of abundance N2 using Bailey’s triple catch method for small samples (equation 5.11 in Ricker 1975) is:

 

where

N2 is the abundance of fish during time 2,

M2 is the number of fish tagged during time 2,

C2 is the number of fish caught and examined for tags during time 2,

R12 is the number of fish recaptured during time 2 that were tagged during time 1,

R13 is the number of fish recaptured during time 3 that were tagged during time 1,

R13 is the number of fish recaptured during time 3 that were tagged during time 1,

R23 is the number of fish recaptured during time 3 that were tagged during time 2.

 

The variance of N2 (equation 5.14 in Ricker 1975) is:

 

The modified Jolly-Seber 4-catch method uses fish caught during four time periods.  During the first period (Time 1), fish are tagged. During Time 2, the total catch and the recaptured fish are enumerated, fish not previously tagged are tagged, and all fish are returned to the water.  During Time 3, recaptures from fish tagged during Time 1 and Time 2 are enumerated, fish not previously tagged are tagged, and all fish are returned to the water. During Time 4, recaptures from fish tagged during Time 1, Time 2, and Time 3 are enumerated. The best estimate of Ni using the modified Jolly-Seber 4-catch method (equation 5.22 in Ricker 1975) is:

where (equation 5.21 in Ricker 1975)

and

Mi is the number of fish tagged during Time 1, Time 2, and Time 3,

Ci is the number of fish caught and examined for tags during Time 2, Time 3, and Time 4,

Ri is the number of fish recaptured during a recapture time period summed across all tagging periods,

mi is the total number of fish recaptured during a tagging period summed across all recapture periods,

Ki is the number of fish recaptured during a recapture time period summed across all tagging periods minus the recaptures from first tagging period for each recapture period.

The variance (equation 5.23 in Ricker 1975) is:

2.2.2        Length Comparisons

The mean length of yearling and older northern pike in Buckhorn Marsh impoundment was compared to the mean lengths of yearling and older northern pike in Woods Creek, Gun Creek, Spicer Creek, and Big Six Mile Creek using the ANOVA approach in PROC GLM of SAS/STAT (SAS 1989). Two options were specified with the MEANS statement: DUNCAN and LSD.  DUNCAN performs Duncan’s multiple range test on all main effect means in the MEANS statement.  LSD performs a pairwise t-test, equivalent to Fisher’s least-significant-difference test in the case of equal cell sizes, for all main effect means in the MEANS statement. The lengths were also compared using the Chi-Square approach in PROC FREQ of SAS/STAT.

The mean length of YOY northern pike in Buckhorn Marsh impoundment was compared to the mean length of YOY in Woods Creek, Gun Creek, and Big Six Mile Creek combined using the GLM procedure of SAS/STAT.

The mean length of YOY largemouth bass in Buckhorn Marsh impoundment was compared to the mean lengths of YOY in Burnt Ship Creek and Woods Creek using the GLM procedure of SAS/STAT.  One option was specified in the MEANS statement, DUNCAN.

 

Figure 2.0-1

Investigation Area

 

 

Figure 2.1-1

Locations of Fyke Nets, Electrofishing and Seining in Buckhorn Marsh Impoundment, Burnt Ship Creek, and Woods Creek

 

Figure 2.1-2

Locations of Fyke Nets, Electrofishing and Seining in Gun Creek

 

Figure 2.1-3

Locations of Fyke Nets, Electrofishing and Seining in Spicer Creek

 

Figure 2.1-4

Locations of Fyke Nets, Electrofishing and Seining in Big Six Mile Creek

 

Figure 2.1.1.2-1

Insertion of PIT Tag into the Isthmus of a Northern Pike

 

Figure 2.1.4-1

Locations of Water Level Gauges in Buckhorn Marsh Impoundment, Burnt Ship Creek and Woods Creek

 

Figure 2.1.5-1

Locations of Habitat Transects in Buckhorn Marsh Impoundment and Burnt Ship Creek

 

 

3.0     RESULTS

3.1         Buckhorn Marsh Restoration Project

Northern pike and largemouth bass were caught in Buckhorn Marsh impoundment and in Burnt Ship Creek and one small yellow perch was caught in Burnt Ship Creek.

3.1.1        Buckhorn Marsh Impoundment

3.1.1.1       Yearling and Older Northern Pike

Fyke netting in Buckhorn Marsh impoundment caught 190 yearling and older northern pike; 48 in fyke nets BHM1 and BHM2 on the eastern end, 79 in fyke nets BHM4 and BHM5 on the western end, and 63 in fyke nets BHM3 and BHM6 in the central portion (Table 3.1.1.1-1).  Of those, 20 were tagged from fyke nets BHM1 and BHM2, 27 from fyke nets BHM4 and BHM5, and 25 from BHM3 and BHM6 (Table 3.1.1.1-2).  All fish were tagged during the period March 28 through April 18 except one, tagged on May 14.  The tagged fish included 24 males, 9 females, and 39 whose sex could not be determined (Table 3.1.1.1-3).  They ranged in length from 295 mm to 575 mm with a mean of 385 mm (Appendix B, Table B-1).  Seining caught a 512 mm long northern pike on July 15.  Only two tagged fish were recaptured without a tag; they were retagged.

Only one northern pike caught in Buckhorn Marsh impoundment was previously caught and tagged outside Buckhorn Marsh impoundment.  It was a male, 647 mm long when tagged in Woods Creek on March 25 and 647 mm long when recaptured on May 7.  No northern pike caught and tagged in Buckhorn Marsh impoundment were caught anywhere else sampled during this study.

The estimated number of yearling and older northern pike during the period March 28 through May 2, excluding the male initially caught in Woods Creek, was 85 using the Schumacher and Eschmeyer method and 87 using the adjusted Schnabel method (Appendix C, Table C-1).  The 95% confidence interval was 77 to 95 for the Schumacher and Eschmeyer estimate and 71 to 108 for the Schnabel estimate. 

3.1.1.2       Young-of-the-Year Northern Pike

Seining in Buckhorn Marsh impoundment caught 77 YOY northern pike from June 11 to September 30.  They ranged in length from 69 mm to 296 mm (Appendix B, Table B-1).  The monthly mean length increased from 85 mm during June to 114 mm during July, 148 mm during August, and 166 mm during September. Of the 77 YOY caught, 72 were finclipped and 5 were recaptured.  The estimated number of YOY northern pike based on fish marked and recaptured during August and September was 241 using the Schumacher-Eschmeyer method and 204 using the Schnabel method.   The 95% confidence interval was 167 to 435 for the Schumacher-Eschmeyer estimate and 178 to 234 for the Schnabel estimate (Appendix C, Table C-2). 

3.1.1.3       Yearling and Older Largemouth Bass

Fyke netting in Buckhorn Marsh impoundment caught seven yearling and older largemouth bass; all were tagged and none were recaptured.  Two of the seven were females; the sex of the other five could not be determined.  They ranged in length from 335 mm to 419 mm with a mean of 372 mm.

3.1.1.4       Young-of-the-Year Largemouth Bass

Seining in Buckhorn Marsh impoundment caught 92 YOY largemouth bass.  Of those, 73 were measured and finclipped; they ranged in length from 39 mm to 132 mm with a mean of 64 mm.  No finclipped YOY largemouth bass were recaptured.

3.1.1.5       All Fish Species

Seining, electrofishing, and fyke netting in Buckhorn Marsh impoundment caught 21 species of fish (Table 3.1.1.5-1, Appendix F, Table F-1).  Some fish caught were only identified as belonging to the sunfish genus, the minnow family, or the sunfish family. 

Seining caught 2,355 fish.  They were identified as belonging to 18 species and 1 genus (Table 3.1.1.5-2). Sunfish (those identified as Lepomis sp.) were the most abundant genera, comprising 40.4% of all fish caught, while brown bullheads was the most abundant species and comprised 17.1% of all fish caught.  Northern pike comprised 3.3% of all fish caught and largemouth bass comprised 3.9%.. No yellow perch were caught.

Fyke netting caught 993 fish of 14 species (Table 3.1.1.5-3).  Pumpkinseeds were most abundant, comprising 30.3% of all fish caught.  Largemouth bass comprised 0.8% and northern pike 19.1% of all fish caught. No yellow perch were caught.

Electrofishing caught 1[MAJ1] 0 fish species; some fish were only identified as belonging to the minnow family or the sunfish family (Table 3.1.1.5-4, Appendix F, Table F-2).  Four largemouth bass and no northern pike or yellow perch were caught.

3.1.1.6       Aquatic Habitat Characterization

In the Buckhorn Marsh impoundment, the depth, profile, and substrate of the channel were relatively similar at all transects.  The maximum depth was about 6 feet. The edge of the channel generally included a small shelf with water less than 2 feet deep.  (Figures 3.1.1.6-1 and 3.1.1.6-2).  The substrate was generally mud, muck and silt with almost no sand (Figures 3.1.1.6-3 and 3.1.1.6-4).  Muck substrates were characterized by soft, organic sediments with high water content.

3.1.1.6.1      April 2003

Very little decaying vegetation was present in the Buckhorn Marsh impoundment during April 2003 (Figure 3.1.1.6.1-1).  The abundance of submerged aquatic vegetation (SAV) was generally sparse, moderately dense, or dense, although transects 14, 15 and 16, located in the western portion had very dense SAV (Figure 3.1.1.6.1-2).  The SAV included nine species, three of which were common to most transects and made up the majority of the SAV coverage: coontail (Ceratophyllum demersum), waterweed (Elodea canadensis), and pondweed (Potamogeton species).  Five species were found in western transects (9-12): in transects 9-12 and Eurasian milfoil (Myriophyllum spicatum) in transects 11-13.  Seven species were only found in eastern transects (1-4) and water celery (Vallisneria americana) and water stargrass (Zosterella dubia) were found only in transects 1-6. 

During April 2003, emergent aquatic vegetation (EAV) in the Buckhorn Marsh impoundment was present at the edges of the channel in all transects (Figure 3.1.1.6.1-2).  The most pervasive species of EAV, and often the only one present, was cattail (Tyhpa latifolia).  Purple loosestrife (Lythrum salicaria), cat greenbriar (Smilax glauca), yellow pond lily (Nuphar lutea), green arrow arum (Peltandra virginica), and upright sedge (Carex stricta) were occasionally present in isolated patches comprising 20% or less of the EAV.  Transect 16 had the greatest number of EAV species (5), and cattail dominated the EAV along it. 

3.1.1.6.2      August 2003

Very little decaying vegetation was present in the Buckhorn Marsh impoundment during August 2003 (Figure 3.1.1.6.2-1).  SAV was generally very dense in all open water areas along the transects (Figure 3.1.1.6.2-2).  Thirteen species of SAV were found along the transects. Most of the SAV was sparse to moderately dense and non-uniformly distributed.  Coontail was common along all transects and often made up the majority of the SAV present, while stargrass was common in transects 1-4, but found in isolated patches elsewhere.  Pondweed was sparse to moderate in coverage at all transects. Waterweed was present along most transects and its abundance was sparse to very dense. 

During August 2003, cattail was generally the most abundant EAV along all the transects in the Buckhorn Marsh impoundment.  Several transects (1, 3, 5-9, 11, and 16) had species other than cattail that made up 20% to 50% of the total EAV.  These species were purple loosestrife, swamp verbena (Verbena hastata), pickerelweed (Pontederia cordata), earth loosestrife (Lysimachia terrestris), common rush (Juncus effusus), and common reed (Phragmites australis).

3.1.1.7       Water Quality

In Buckhorn Marsh impoundment, pH averaged 7.9 and ranged from 7.3 to 8.8; DO averaged 6.4 ppm, and ranged from 2.6 to 11.1 ppm, temperature averaged 15.8° C and ranged from 1.2° C to 27.8° C, and conductivity averaged 320 umhos/cm and ranged from 270 umhos/cm to 1,034 umhos/cm (Appendix D, Table D-1).

3.1.2        Burnt Ship Creek

3.1.2.1       Yearling and Older Northern Pike

Fyke netting in Burnt Ship Creek caught two yearling and older northern pike; both were caught on March 29 and tagged.  One of the two fish was a female 505 mm long.  The other was 363 mm long; its sex could not be determined. 

3.1.2.2       Young-of-the-Year Northern Pike

Seining in Burnt Ship Creek caught four YOY northern pike and electrofishing caught one from June 26 through August 28; all were finclipped.  They ranged in length from 109 mm to 192 mm.  None of the YOY were recaptured.

3.1.2.3       Yearling and Older Largemouth Bass

Fyke netting in Burnt Ship Creek caught five yearling and older largemouth bass and electrofishing caught one.  Of those, one was tagged.  The sex of the four fish could not be determined.  They ranged in length from 140 mm to 446 mm with a mean of 252 mm.  Seining caught a 179 mm long and a 199 mm long largemouth bass.

3.1.2.4       Young-of-the-Year Largemouth Bass

Seining in Burnt Ship Creek caught 114 YOY largemouth bass and electrofishing caught 16.  They ranged in length from 39 mm to 112 mm with a mean of 59 mm.   Of the 130 YOY caught, 73 were finclipped and none were recaptured.

3.1.2.5       All Fish Species

Seining, electrofishing, and fyke netting in Burnt Ship Creek caught 25 species of fish (Table 3.1.2.5-1, Appendix F, Table F-3).  Some fish caught were only identified as belonging to the sunfish genus, the minnow family, or stickleback family. 

Seining caught 1,512 fish.  They were identified as belonging to 21 species (Table 3.1.2.5-2).  Some fish were only identified as belonging to the sunfish genus or stickleback family.  Central mudminnow was the most abundant species, comprising 27% of all fish caught. Northern pike accounted for 0.3 % and largemouth bass 9.9%.  Two muskellunge were also caught.

Fyke netting caught 222 fish of 13 species (Table 3.1.2.5-3).  Pumpkinseeds were the most abundant, comprising 59.9 % of all fish caught.  Northern pike comprised 0.9% and largemouth bass 2.3 % of all fish caught.  One small yellow perch was caught but escaped through the mesh of the fyke net before it could be measured

Electrofishing caught 19 species, 1 family, and 1 genus (Table 3.1.2.5-4, Appendix F, Table F-4).  One northern pike, 17 largemouth bass, and no yellow perch were caught.

3.1.2.6       Aquatic Habitat Characterization

Water depth along the longitudinal Transect in Burnt Ship Creek ranged from 0.6 to 3.8 feet, with most being about 1.5 feet deep (Figures 3.1.2.6-1 and 3.1.2.6-2).  Only two points along this Transect were about 3.6 and 3.8 feet; the next deepest point along it was about 2 feet.  At Transect 1, there was a distinct east-west channel approximately 30 feet wide (north to south) and about 2 to 3 feet deep.  North of this channel, the water was about 1.5 to 2 feet deep, becoming shallower only within about 10 feet of the north shore.    Transect 2 was generally about 1 foot deep except for a very small section about 2.5 feet deep that was about 5 feet wide.  From the mouth of Burnt Ship Creek to a distance approximately 600 southeast, the creek was completely occluded by very dense stands of cattail (Figures 3.1.2.6-1 and 3.1.2.6-2).  Substrates were entirely mud and muck along the longitudinal transect and Transect 1, with only a small amount of silt at the very end of the longitudinal transect at the mouth of Burnt Ship Creek, and were entirely muck along Transect 2 (Figures 3.1.2.6-3 and 3.1.2.6-4).

3.1.2.6.1      April 2003

During April 2003, little or no decaying vegetation was present along the longitudinal transect except for a section about 100 to 500 feet west of Route I-190, where about 70% or more of the decaying vegetation was present.  The water depth in this area was ~1 to 1.5 feet.  Little or no decaying vegetation was present along the cross sectional transects (Figure 3.1.2.6.1-1). 

SAV was sparse to moderately dense in the open water areas along the longitudinal transect and Transect 1 (Figure 3.1.2.6.1-2) and composed of coontail and waterweed.  No SAV was present along Transect 2. 

EAV was present at nearly every point along the longitudinal transect, was generally dense to very dense, and comprised mostly of cattail.  A small amount of purple loosestrife and duckweed was present in two small areas, around the Route I-190 bridges and along the south side of the open water area approximately 400 feet west of cross section Transect 1.  The most abundant species of EAV was cattail; purple loosestrife, American lotus (Nelumbo lutea), duckweed, and yellow pond lily were also present.  The area from the mouth to approximately 550 feet upstream was comprised of cattail that was moderately dense to very dense.

3.1.2.6.2      August 2003

During August 2003, about 70% or more of the decaying vegetation was present along the longitudinal transect approximately 100 to 500 feet west of Route I-190, the same locations at which decaying vegetation was present in April 2003 (Figure 3.1.2.6.2-1).  Very little decaying vegetation was present along most of the rest of the longitudinal and cross section transects. 

SAV was moderately dense to very dense in open water areas along the longitudinal transect and very dense along Transect 1 (Figure 3.1.2.6.2-2).  The species of SAV were coontail, waterweed, common bladderwort, American white waterlily, stargrass, and pondweed.  No SAV was present along Transect 2.

EAV was present at nearly every point along the longitudinal transect, was generally dense to very dense, and comprised mostly of cattail.  The very dense stand of cattail that had grown in since April 2003 from the mouth to approximately 600 feet upstream made it impossible for the habitat survey crew to traverse through it (Figure 3.1.2.6.2-2).  A small amount of purple loosestrife and duckweed was present in two small areas, around the Route I-190 bridges and along the south side of the open water area approximately 400 feet west of Transect 1.  The most abundant species of EAV were purple loosestrife, jewelweed (Impatiens capensis), and broadleaf arrowhead (Sagittaria latifolia).   The species of EAV present along the Transect 1 were cattail, reed canary grass (Phalaris arundinacea), joepyeweed (Eupatorium maculatum), purple loosestrife and jewelweed.  Along Transect 2, the species of EAV were primarily cattail on the northern and southern ends and broadleaf arrowhead and arrowhead elsewhere. 

3.1.2.7       Water Quality

In Burnt Ship Creek, pH averaged 7.9 and ranged from 6.9 to 9.6; DO averaged 6.7 ppm and ranged from 0.57 to 12.6 ppm, temperature averaged 14.1° C and ranged from 0.7° C to 23.7° C, and conductivity averaged 1,085 umhos/cm and ranged from 475 umhos/cm to 1,990 umhos/cm (Appendix D, Table D-2).

3.2         Woods Creek

3.2.1        Yearling and Older Northern Pike

Fyke netting in Woods Creek caught 217 yearling and older northern pike and electrofishing caught 5 from March 25 to July 3.  Of those, 163 were tagged in Woods Creek and 54 were recaptured; 42 males, 33 females, and 88 whose sex could not be determined.  The tagged fish ranged in length from 306 mm to 808 mm with a mean of 542 mm (Appendix B, Table B-1).  Seining caught a 392 mm long and a 402 mm long northern pike.  Only one tagged fish was recaptured without a tag.  No northern pike caught in Woods Creek were previously caught and tagged elsewhere.

The estimated number of yearling and older northern pike in Woods Creek during the peak period March 30 through April 13 was 612 using the Jolly-Seber 4-catch method and 528 using the Bailey triple-catch method (Appendix C, Tables C-3 and C-4).  The 95% confidence interval was 103 to 1,121 for the Jolly-Seber estimate and 0 to 1,208 for the Bailey estimate.

3.2.2        Young-of-the-Year Northern Pike

Seining in Woods Creek caught eight YOY northern pike and electrofishing caught one from June 25 to September 5.  They ranged in length from 87 mm on June 25 to 277 mm on September 22 (Appendix B, Table B-2).  The monthly mean length increased from 89 mm during June, to 150 mm during July, 172 mm during August, and 257 mm during September.  Of the nine YOY caught, 7 were finclipped and one was recaptured. 

3.2.3        All Fish Species

Seining, electrofishing, and fyke netting in Woods Creek caught 32 species of fish (Table 3.2.3-1, Appendix F, Table F-5).   Some fish caught were only identified as belonging to the sunfish genus, the redhorse genus, the minnow family, or the sunfish family.

Seining caught 994 fish (Table 3.2.3-2). They were identified as belonging to 19 species, one family, and one genus.  Pumpkinseeds were the most abundant, comprising 39.1 % of all fish caught.  Northern pike comprised 1 % of all fish caught and largemouth bass comprised 15.5%.  No yellow perch were caught.  Five muskellunge were also caught. Fyke netting caught 7,875 fish of 27 species, one family and one genus (Table 3.2.3-3).  Rock bass were most abundant, comprising 25.9% of all fish caught.  Northern pike comprised 2.8% and largemouth bass 8.6% of all fish caught.   Fifteen [MAJ2] muskellunge were also caught.

Electrofishing caught 18 species, two families, and one genus (Table 3.2.3-4, Appendix F, Table F-6).  Six northern pike, 179 largemouth bass, and 5 yellow perch were caught.

3.2.4        Water Quality

In Woods Creek, pH averaged 8.1 and ranged from 7.4 to 9.2; DO averaged 8.9 ppm and ranged from 3.2 to 13.9 ppm, temperature averaged 13.5°C and ranged from 0.9°C to 25.1°C, and conductivity averaged 515 umhos/cm and ranged from 220 umhos/cm to 1,085 umhos/cm (Appendix D, Table D-3).

3.3         Gun Creek

3.3.1        Yearling and Older Northern Pike

Fyke netting in Gun Creek caught 160 yearling and older northern pike and electrofishing caught 2 from March 25 to June 10.  Of those, 129 were tagged; 47 males, 29 females, and 59 whose sex could not be determined.  The tagged fish ranged in length from 104 mm to 770 mm with a mean of 542 mm (Appendix B, Table B-1).  No tagged fish were recaptured without a tag.  No northern pike caught in Gun Creek were previously caught and tagged elsewhere.

The estimated number of yearling and older northern pike in Woods Creek during the peak period March 30 through April 13 was 255 using the Jolly-Seber 4-catch method and 159 using the Bailey triple-catch method (Appendix C, Tables C-5 and C-6).  The 95% confidence interval was 0 to 530 for the Jolly-Seber estimate and 0 to 410 for the Bailey estimate.

3.3.2        Young-of-the-Year Northern Pike

Seining in Gun Creek caught 19 YOY northern pike and electrofishing caught 1 from June 9 to September 4.  They ranged in length from 62 mm on June 25 to 202 mm on September 4 (Appendix B, Table B-2).  The monthly mean length increased from 91 mm during June, to 106 mm during July, 162 mm during August, and 196 mm during September.  Of the 20 YOY caught, 14 were finclipped and one was recaptured.

3.3.3        All Fish Species

Seining, electrofishing, and fyke netting in Gun Creek caught 29 species, one family, and two genera (Table 3.3.3-1, Appendix F, Table F-7).  Some fish caught were only identified as belonging to the sunfish genus, the redhorse genus, or the minnow family.  Among the fish caught were 107 largemouth bass, 20 yellow perch, and 3 muskellunge.

3.3.4        Water Quality

In Gun Creek, pH averaged 8.1 and ranged from 7.1 to 9.2; DO averaged 7.1ppm and ranged from 2.3 to 12.1 ppm, temperature averaged 13.4° C and ranged from 0.3° C to 24.2° C, and conductivity averaged 425 umhos/cm and ranged from 240 umhos/cm to 800 umhos/cm (Appendix D, Table D-4).

3.4         Big Six Mile Creek

3.4.1        Yearling and Older Northern Pike

Fyke netting in Big Six Mile Creek caught 14 yearling and older northern pike and electrofishing caught 1 from April 2 to June 4; all were tagged and none were recaptured.  The tagged fish ranged in length from 363 mm to 817 mm long with a mean of 604 mm (Appendix B, Table B-1).  Five of the tagged fish were males and six were females; the sex of the other four could not be determined.  Seining caught three yearling and older northern pike; the first on June 9 was 268 mm long, the second on June 25 was 448 mm long, and the third on July 23 was 552 mm long.

3.4.2        Young-of-the-Year Northern Pike

Seining in Big Six Mile Creek caught 17 YOY northern pike from June 2 to September 5 and all but one were finclipped.  The finclipped fish ranged in length from 109 mm to 192 mm (Appendix B, Table B-2). The monthly mean length increased from 77 mm during June, to 183 mm during August, and 236 mm during September; none were caught during August.  None of the YOY were recaptured.

3.4.3        All Fish Species

Seining, electrofishing, and fyke netting caught 34 species of fish in Big Six Mile Creek (Table 3.4.3-1, Appendix F, Table F-8).  Some fish caught were only identified as belonging to the sunfish genus, the redhorse genus, the minnow family, or the sunfish family.  Among the fish caught were 742 largemouth bass, 48 yellow perch, and 14 muskellunge.

3.4.4        Water Quality

In Big Six Mile Creek, pH averaged 8.1 and ranged from 7.0 to 9.2; DO averaged 8.5ppm and ranged from 5.4 to 15.9 ppm, temperature averaged 15.7° C and ranged from 1.0° C to 25.1° C, and conductivity averaged 373 umhos/cm and ranged from 240 umhos/cm to 600 umhos/cm (Appendix D, Table D-5).

3.5         Spicer Creek

3.5.1        Yearling and Older Northern Pike

Fyke netting in Spicer Creek caught 25 yearling and older northern pike and electrofishing caught 1 from April 12 to June 3; 24 were tagged and 2 were recaptured.  The tagged fish ranged in length from 335 mm to 754 mm long with a mean of 542 mm (Appendix B, Table B-1).    Eleven were males and 2 were females; the sex of the other 11 could not be determined.

3.5.2        Young-of-the-Year Northern Pike

No YOY northern pike were caught in Spicer Creek. 

3.5.3        All Fish Species

Seining, electrofishing, and fyke netting in Spicer Creek caught 34 species of fish (Table 3.5.3-1, Appendix F, Table F-9).  Some fish caught were only identified as belonging to the sunfish genus or the minnow family.  Among the fish caught were 200 largemouth bass, 3 yellow perch and 17 muskellunge.

3.5.4        Water Quality

In Spicer Creek, pH averaged 8.1 and ranged from 7.1 to 9.2; DO averaged 8.6 ppm and ranged from 3.2 to 18.1 ppm, temperature averaged 14.0° C and ranged from 0.3° C to 27.6° C, and conductivity averaged 770 umhos/cm and ranged from 220 umhos/cm to 2,200 umhos/cm (Appendix D, Table D-6).

3.6         Northern Pike Length Data

The mean lengths of yearling and older northern pike caught by fyke netting and electrofishing and tagged in Buckhorn Marsh impoundment, Woods Creek, Gun Creek, Spicer Creek, and Big Six Mile Creek were significantly different (F=31.80, df=4, P<0.0001).  Yearling and older northern pike in Buckhorn Marsh impoundment were significantly smaller than those in Woods Creek, Gun Creek, and Spicer Creek and those in Woods Creek, Gun Creek, and Spicer Creek were significantly smaller than those in Big Six Mile Creek (MSE=11,771.36, df=388, Alpha=0.05).  Buckhorn Marsh impoundment was unique in that no yearling and older northern pike > 600 mm were caught and tagged there (Table 3.6-1).  The number of yearling and older northern pike >600 mm in Buckhorn Marsh impoundment was significantly smaller than expected when compared with yearling and older northern pike from Woods Creek, Gun Creek, and Spicer Creek combined based on a Chi-Square analysis of fish <600 mm and those >600 mm (Chi-Square=29.422, df=1, P<0.001).

The mean length of YOY northern pike caught by seining in Buckhorn Marsh impoundment differed from that of Woods Creek, Gun Creek, and Big Six Mile Creek combined by month (F=4.10, df=3, P<0.0084).  The difference in lengths became progressively larger from June through September (Table 3.6-2).

 

Table 3.1.1.1-1

Numbers of Northern Pike Caught by Fyke Netting in Buckhorn Marsh Impoundment by DATE AND fyke net location during 2003.[DD3] 

Date

BHM11

BHM21

BHM32

BHM42

BHM52

BHM62

Total

3/28/2003

1

1

 

 

 

 

2

3/29/2003

2

1

 

 

 

 

3

3/30/2003

2

 

 

 

 

 

2

3/31/2003

1

2

 

 

 

 

3

4/1/2003

4

6

 

4

6

 

20

4/2/2003

 

 

11

4

 

3

18

4/3/2003

 

 

6

4

4

 

14

4/4/2003

 

1

 

 

8

 

9

4/10/2003

 

 

 

7

5

5

17

4/11/2003

 

 

1

 

3

2

6

4/12/2003

1

 

 

3

1

2

7

4/13/2003

 

 

 

1

5

4

10

4/14/2003

 

 

 

2

 

5

7

Table 3.1.1.1-1 (CONT.)

Numbers of northern pike caught by fyke netting in Buckhorn Marsh impoundment by DATE AND fyke net location during 2003.

Date

BHM11

BHM21

BHM32

BHM42

BHM52

BHM62

Total

4/15/2003

 

 

 

1

 

4

5

4/16/2003

 

 

1

2

1

5

9

4/17/2003

 

 

 

2

4

2

8

4/18/2003

 

 

2

 

2

2

6

4/25/2003

 

 

 

1

 

 

1

4/30/2003

1

1

1

 

1

1

5

5/1/2003

1

 

 

1

 

 

2

5/2/2003

 

1

 

 

 

 

1

5/7/2003

1

 

 

 

 

 

1

5/8/2003

2

 

 

 

 

 

2

5/9/2003

2

 

 

 

 

 

2

5/14/2003

 

4

 

 

 

 

4

5/15/2003

 

 

 

 

2

 

2

 

Table 3.1.1.1-1 (CONT.)

Numbers of northern pike caught by fyke netting in Buckhorn Marsh impoundment by date and fyke net location during 2003.

Date

BHM11

BHM21

BHM32

BHM42

BHM52

BHM62

Total

5/16/2003

 

1

 

 

 

 

1

5/21/2003

 

 

 

1

 

 

1

5/22/2003

 

2

 

 

1

1

4

5/23/2003

 

1

 

 

1

 

2

6/4/2003

 

 

1

 

 

 

1

6/6/2003

 

 

 

 

 

1

1

6/13/2003

 

 

 

1

 

 

1

6/18/2003

 

1

2

 

 

 

3

6/19/2003

 

1

1

1

 

 

3

6/20/2003

 

2

 

 

 

 

2

6/26/2003

1

1

 

 

 

 

2

6/27/2003

1

 

 

 

 

 

1

7/1/2003

1

 

 

 

 

 

1

 

Table 3.1.1.1-1 (CONT.)

Numbers of northern pike caught by fyke netting in Buckhorn Marsh impoundment by date and fyke net location during 2003.

Date

BHM11

BHM21

BHM32

BHM42

BHM52

BHM62

Total

7/3/2003

 

1

 

 

 

 

1

Total

21

27

26

35

44

37

190

1Nets were set on March 27.

2Nets were set on March 30.

 

Table 3.1.1.1-2

Numbers of Northern Pike Caught by Fyke Netting in Buckhorn Marsh Impoundment and Tagged by Date and Fyke Net Location, during 2003

Date

BHM11

BHM21

BHM32

BHM42

BHM52

BHM62

Total

3/28/2003

1

1

 

 

 

 

2

3/29/2003

2

1

 

 

 

 

3

3/30/2003

2

 

 

 

 

 

2

3/31/2003

1

2

 

 

 

 

3

4/1/2003

4

5

 

4

5

 

18

4/2/2003

 

 

9

4

 

2

15

4/3/2003

 

 

4

2

3

 

9

4/4/2003

 

 

 

 

5

 

5

4/10/2003

 

 

 

 

1

2

3

4/11/2003

 

 

 

 

 

1

1

4/12/2003

 

 

 

1

 

 

1

4/13/2003

 

 

 

 

1

1

2

4/14/2003

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

4/15/2003

 

 

 

 

 

2

2

4/16/2003

 

 

 

 

 

3

3

4/17/2003

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

4/18/2003

 

 

1

 

1

 

2

4/25/2003

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

4/30/2003

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

5/1/2003

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

5/2/2003

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

5/7/2003

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

5/8/2003

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

5/9/2003

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

5/14/2003

 

1

 

 

 

 

1

Total

10

10

14

11

16

11

72

 

1Nets were set on March 27.

2Nets were set on March 30.

 

 

Table 3.1.1.1-3

Numbers of Northern Pike caught by Fyke Netting and Tagged in Buckhorn Marsh Impoundment by Date and Sex during 2003.

 

Numbers of Northern Pike

 

Date

Female

Male

Unknown

Total

3/28/2003

 

 

2

2

3/29/2003

1

 

2

3

3/30/2003

 

 

2

2

3/31/2003

 

 

3

3

4/1/2003

2

8

8

18

4/2/2003

2

8

5

15

4/3/2003

1

3

5

9

4/4/2003

1

 

4

5

4/10/2003

 

 

3

3

4/11/2003

1

 

 

1

4/12/2003

 

 

1

1

4/13/2003

 

 

2

2

4/14/2003

 

 

 

 

4/14/2003

 

 

 

 

4/15/2003

 

2

 

2

4/16/2003

1

 

2

3

4/17/2003

 

 

 

 

4/18/2003

 

2

 

2

4/25/2003

 

 

 

 

4/30/2003

 

 

 

 

5/1/2003

 

 

 

 

5/2/2003

 

 

 

 

5/7/2003

 

 

 

 

5/8/2003

 

 

 

 

5/9/2003

 

 

 

 

5/14/2003

 

1

 

1

Total

9

24

39

72

 

Table 3.1.1.5-1

The Common and Scientific Names of [DD4] Fishes Caught by  Seining, fyke netting, and electrofishing in Buckhorn Marsh Impoundment During 2003

Name

Common [DD5] 

Scientific

Banded killifish

Fundulus diaphanus

Black crappie

Pomoxis nigromaculatus

Bluegill

Lepomis macrochirus

Bluntnose minnow

Pimephales notatus

Bowfin

Amia calva

Brook stickleback

Culaea inconstans

Brown bullhead

Ameiurus nebulosus

Carp

Cyprinus carpio

Central mudminnow

Umbra limi

Common shiner

Luxilus cornutus

Emerald shiner

Notropis atherinoides

European rudd

Scardinius erythrophtalmus

Golden shiner

Notemigonus crysoleucas

Goldfish

Carassius auratus

Green Sunfish

Lepomis cyanellus

Largemouth bass

Micropterus salmoides

Minnow

Cyprinidae

Northern pike

Esox lucius

Pumpkinseed

Lepomis gibbosus

Rock bass

Ambloplites rupestris

Spottail shiner

Notropis hudsonius

Sunfish

Lepomis spp.

Sunfish family

Centrarchidae

Tadpole madtom

Notorus gyrinus

 

 

 

 

Table 3.1.1.5-2

The Common Names and Numbers of Fishes Caught by Seining in Buckhorn Marsh Impoundment During 2003

Common Name

Number Caught

Sunfish

951

Brown bullhead

403

Golden shiner

244

Bluegill

232

Pumpkinseed

174

Central mudminnow

127

Largemouth bass

92

Northern pike

78

Unidentified

14

Brook stickleback

11

Rock bass

11

Black crappie

4

Tadpole madtom

4

Common shiner

3

Bowfin

2

Banded killifish

1

Emerald shiner

1

Goldfish

1

Green Sunfish

1

Spottail shiner

1

 

Table 3.1.1.5-3

The Common Names and Numbers of Fishes Caught by Fyke Netting in Buckhorn Marsh Impoundment During 2003

Common Name

Number Caught

Pumpkinseed

301

Bowfin

205

Northern pike

190

Brown bullhead

186

Bluegill

51

Carp

17

European rudd

15

Goldfish

8

Largemouth bass

8

Black crappie

6

Golden shiner

2

Green Sunfish

2

Bluntnose minnow

1

Rock bass

1

 

 

Table 3.1.1.5-4

The Common and Scientific Names of Fishes [DD6] Caught by Electrofishing in Buckhorn Marsh Impoundment During 2003[DD7] 

Name

Common

Scientific

Banded killifish

Fundulus diaphanus

Bluegill

Lepomis macrochirus

Bowfin

Amia calva

Brown bullhead

Ameiurus nebulosus

Central mudminnow

Umbra limi

Emerald shiner

Notropis atherinoides

Golden shiner

Notemigonus crysoleucas

Green Sunfish

Lepomis cyanellus

Largemouth bass

Micropterus salmoides

Minnows

Cyprinidae

Pumpkinseed

Lepomis gibbosus

Sunfish family

Centrarchidae

 

Table 3.1.2.5-1

The Common and Scientific Names of Fishes Caught by Seining, fyke netting, and electrofishing in Burnt Ship Creek During 2003

Name

Common

Scientific

Banded killifish

Fundulus diaphanus

Black crappie

Pomoxis nigromaculatus

Bluegill

Lepomis macrochirus

Bluntnose minnow

Pimephales notatus

Bowfin

Amia calva

Brook stickleback

Culaea inconstans

Brown bullhead

Ameiurus nebulosus

Carp

Cyprinus carpio

Central mudminnow

Umbra limi

Common shiner

Luxilus cornutus

Creek chub

Semotilus atromaculatus

Emerald shiner

Notropis atherinoides

European rudd

Scardinius erythrophtalmus

Golden shiner

Notemigonus crysoleucas

Goldfish

Carassius auratus

Green Sunfish

Lepomis cyanellus

Largemouth bass

Micropterus salmoides

Minnows

Cyprinidae

Muskellunge

Esox masquinongy

Northern pike

Esox lucius

Pumpkinseed

Lepomis gibbosus

Rock bass

Ambloplites rupestris

Spottail shiner

Notropis hudsonius

Sticklebacks

 Gasterosteidae

Sunfish

Lepomis spp.

Table 3.1.2.5-1 (Cont.)

The common and Scientific names of Fishes Caught by Seining, fyke netting, and electrofishing in Burnt Ship Creek during 2003

Name

Common

Scientific

Tadpole madtom

Notorus gyrinus

White sucker

Catostomus commersoni

Yellow perch

Perca flavescens

 

 

Table 3.1.2.5-2

The Common Names and Numbers of Fishes Caught by Seining in Burnt Ship Creek During 2003

Common Name

Number Caught

Central mudminnow

408

Brown bullhead

241

Sticklebacks

194

Largemouth bass

149

Golden shiner

137

Pumpkinseed

82

Common shiner

69

Brook stickleback

56

Spottail shiner

48

White sucker

27

Banded killifish

19

Black crappie

12

Green Sunfish

11

Sunfish

10

Emerald shiner

10

Carp

10

Bluegill

8

Creek chub

5

Northern pike

4

Tadpole madtom

3

Bowfin

3

Unidentified

2

Rock bass

2

Muskellunge

2

 

Table 3.1.2.5-3

The Common Names and Numbers of Fishes Caught by Fyke Netting in Burnt Ship Creek During 2003

Common Name

Number Caught

Pumpkinseed

124

Bowfin

32

Creek chub

13

Brown bullhead

10

Carp

9

European rudd

8

Bluegill

7

Common shiner

7

Largemouth bass

5

Rock bass

3

Northern pike

2

Black crappie

1

Yellow perch

1

 

 

Table 3.1.2.5-4

The Common and Scientific Names of Fishes Caught by Electrofishing in Burnt Ship Creek During 200[DD8] 3

Name

Common

Scientific

Banded killifish

Fundulus diaphanus

Black crappie

Pomoxis nigromaculatus

Bluegill

Lepomis macrochirus

Bluntnose minnow

Pimephales notatus

Bowfin

Amia calva

Brook stickleback

Culaea inconstans

Brown bullhead

Ameiurus nebulosus

Carp

Cyprinus carpio

Central mudminnow

Umbra limi

Common shiner

Luxilus cornutus

Emerald shiner

Notropis atherinoides

Golden shiner

Notemigonus crysoleucas

Goldfish

Carassius auratus

Green Sunfish

Lepomis cyanellus

Largemouth bass

Micropterus salmoides

Minnow family

Cyprinidae

Northern pike

Esox lucius

Pumpkinseed

Lepomis gibbosus

Spottail shiner

Notropis hudsonius

Sunfish

Lepomis spp.

White sucker

Catostomus commersoni

Table 3.2.3-1

The Common and Scientific Names of Fishes Caught by All Gear Types in Woods Creek During 2003

Name

Common

Scientific

Banded killifish

Fundulus diaphanus

Black crappie

Pomoxis nigromaculatus

Bluegill

Lepomis macrochirus

Bowfin

Amia calva

Brook silverside

Labidesthes sicculus

Brown bullhead

Ameiurus nebulosus

Carp

Cyprinus carpio

Central mudminnow

Umbra limi

Channel catfish

Ictalurus punctatus

Common shiner

Luxilus cornutus

Creek chub

Semotilus atromaculatus

Emerald shiner

Notropis atherinoides

European rudd

Scardinius erythrophtalmus

Freshwater drum

Aplodinotus grunniens

Gizzard shad

Dorosoma cepedianum

Golden shiner

Notemigonus crysoleucas

Goldfish

Carassius auratus

Greater redhorse

Moxostoma valenciennesi

Largemouth bass

Micropterus salmoides

Minnows

Cyprinidae

Muskellunge

Esox masquinongy

Northern pike

Esox lucius

Pumpkinseed

Lepomis gibbosus

Quillback

Carpiodes cyprinus

 

Table 3.2.3-1 (Cont.)

The common and Scientific names of Fishes Caught by All Gear Types in Woods Creek during 2003

Name

Common

Scientific

Rainbow trout

Oncorhynchus mykiss

 

Redhorse

Moxostoma spp.

River redhorse

Moxostoma carinatum

Rock bass

Ambloplites rupestris

Spottail shiner

Notropis hudsonius

Sunfish

Lepomis spp.

Sunfish family

Centrarchidae

Tadpole madtom

Notorus gyrinus

White crappie

Pomoxis annularis

White sucker

Catostomus commersoni

Yellow bullhead

Ameiurus natalis

Yellow perch

Perca flavescens

 

Table 3.2.3-2

The Common Names and Numbers of Fishes Caught by Seining in Woods Creek During 2003

Common Name

Number Caught

Pumpkinseed

389

Largemouth bass

154

Rock bass

126

Brown bullhead

77

Sunfish

73

Carp

46

Bluegill

43

Goldfish

20

Golden shiner

16

Northern pike

10

Banded killifish

7

Spottail shiner

6

Minnows

6

Muskellunge

5

Black crappie

4

White sucker

3

Tadpole madtom

3

Central mudminnow

2

European rudd

2

Common shiner

1

Brook silverside

1

 

Table 3.2.3-3

The Common Names and Numbers of Fishes Caught by Fyke Netting in Woods Creek During 2003

Common Name

Number Caught

Rock bass

2041

Pumpkinseed

1799

Brown bullhead

1346

Largemouth bass

680

European rudd

520

White sucker

347

Northern pike

217

Black crappie

205

Carp

168

Bluegill

150

Yellow perch

97

Redhorse

87

Goldfish

71

Common shiner

29

Spottail shiner

25

Bowfin

24

Muskellunge

15

Creek chub

12

Golden shiner

9

Gizzard shad

7

White crappie

7

Greater redhorse

4

Freshwater drum

3

River redhorse

3

Yellow Bullhead

3

Minnows

2

Quillback

2

Table 3.2.3-3 (Cont.)

The common names and Numbers of Fishes Caught by Fyke Netting in Woods Creek during 2003

Common Name

Number Caught

Channel catfish

1

Rainbow trout

1

 

Table 3.2.3-4

The Common and Scientific Names of Fishes Caught by Electrofishing in Woods Creek During 2003

Name

Common

Scientific

Banded killifish

Fundulus diaphanus

Bluegill

Lepomis macrochirus

Brown bullhead

Ameiurus nebulosus

Carp

Cyprinus carpio

Central mudminnow

Umbra limi

Emerald shiner

Notropis atherinoides

European rudd

Scardinius erythrophtalmus

Freshwater drum

Aplodinotus grunniens

Golden shiner

Notemigonus crysoleucas

Goldfish

Carassius auratus

Largemouth bass

Micropterus salmoides

Minnows

Cyprinidae

Northern pike

Esox lucius

Pumpkinseed

Lepomis gibbosus

Rock bass

Ambloplites rupestris

Spottail shiner

Notropis hudsonius

Sunfish

Lepomis spp.

Sunfish family

Centrarchidae

White crappie

Pomoxis annularis

White sucker

Catostomus commersoni

Yellow perch

Perca flavescens

 

 

Table 3.3.3-1

The Common and Scientific Names of Fishes Caught By Seining, fyke netting, and electrofishing in Gun Creek During 2003

Name

Common

Scientific

Banded killifish

Fundulus diaphanus

Black crappie

Pomoxis nigromaculatus

Bluegill

Lepomis macrochirus

Bluntnose minnow

Pimephales notatus

Bowfin

Amia calva

Brook stickleback

Culaea inconstans

Brown bullhead

Ameiurus nebulosus

Carp

Cyprinus carpio

Central mudminnow

Umbra limi

Common shiner

Luxilus cornutus

Creek chub

Semotilus atromaculatus

Emerald shiner

Notropis atherinoides

European rudd

Scardinius erythrophtalmus

Freshwater drum

Aplodinotus grunniens

Gizzard shad

Dorosoma cepedianum

Golden shiner

Notemigonus crysoleucas

Goldfish

Carassius auratus

Green Sunfish

Lepomis cyanellus

Largemouth bass

Micropterus salmoides

Minnows

Cyprinidae

Muskellunge

Esox masquinongy

Northern hog sucker

Hypentelium nigricans

Northern pike

Esox lucius

Pumpkinseed

Lepomis gibbosus

Redhorse

Moxostoma spp.

Rock bass

Ambloplites rupestris

Spottail shiner

Notropis hudsonius

 

 

 

Table 3.3.3-1 (CONT.)

The Common and Scientific Names of Fishes Caught By Seining, fyke netting, and electrofishing in Gun Creek During 2003

Name

Common

Scientific

Sunfish

Lepomis spp.

Tadpole madtom

Notorus gyrinus

White crappie

Pomoxis annularis

White sucker

Catostomus commersoni

Yellow perch

Perca flavescens

 

 

Table 3.4.3-1

The Common and Scientific Names of Fishes Caught By Seining, fyke netting, and electrofishing in Big Six Mile Creek During 2003

Name

Common

Scientific

Banded killifish

Fundulus diaphanus

Black crappie

Pomoxis nigromaculatus

Bluegill

Lepomis macrochirus

Bluntnose minnow

Pimephales notatus

Bowfin

Amia calva

Brook silverside

Labidesthes sicculus

Brown bullhead

Ameiurus nebulosus

Carp

Cyprinus carpio

Common shiner

Luxilus cornutus

Creek chub

Semotilus atromaculatus

European rudd

Scardinius erythrophtalmus

Freshwater drum

Aplodinotus grunniens

Gizzard shad

Dorosoma cepedianum

Golden shiner

Notemigonus crysoleucas

Goldfish

Carassius auratus

Green Sunfish

Lepomis cyanellus

Johnny darter

Etheostoma nigrum

Largemouth bass

Micropterus salmoides

Longnose gar

Lepisosteus osseus

Minnows

Cyprinidae

Muskellunge

Esox masquinongy

Northern pike

Esox lucius

Pumpkinseed

Lepomis gibbosus

Quillback

Carpiodes cyprinus

Table 3.4.3-1 (CONT.)

The Common and scientific Names of Fishes Caught By Seining, fyke netting, and electrofishing in Big Six Mile Creek During 2003

Name

Common

Scientific

Rainbow trout

Oncorhynchus mykiss

Redhorse

Moxostoma spp.

River redhorse

Moxostoma carinatum

Rock bass

Ambloplites rupestris

Round goby

Neogobius melanostomus

Smallmouth bass

Micropterus dolomieui

Spottail shiner

Notropis hudsonius

Sunfish

Lepomis spp.

Sunfish family

Centrarchidae

White bass

Morone chrysops

White crappie

Pomoxis annularis

White perch

Morone americana

White sucker

Catostomus commersoni

Yellow perch

Perca flavescens

 

 

Table 3.5.3-1

The Common and Scientific Names of Fishes Caught By Seining, fyke netting, and electrofishing in Spicer Creek During 2003

Name

Common

Scientific

Banded killifish

Fundulus diaphanus

Black crappie

Pomoxis nigromaculatus

Bluegill

Lepomis macrochirus

Bluntnose minnow

Pimephales notatus

Bowfin

Amia calva

Brindled madtom

Noturus miurus

Brook silverside

Labidesthes sicculus

Brown bullhead

Ameiurus nebulosus

Carp

Cyprinus carpio

Central mudminnow

Umbra limi

Common shiner

Luxilus cornutus

Creek chub

Semotilus atromaculatus

Emerald shiner

Notropis atherinoides

European rudd

Scardinius erythrophtalmus

Freshwater drum

Aplodinotus grunniens

Gizzard shad

Dorosoma cepedianum

Golden shiner

Notemigonus crysoleucas

Goldfish

Carassius auratus

Green Sunfish

Lepomis cyanellus

Hornyhead chub

Nocomis biguttatus

Largemouth bass

Micropterus salmoides

Minnows

Cyprinidae

Muskellunge

Esox masquinongy

Northern hog sucker

Hypentelium nigricans

Table 3.5.3-1 (Cont.)

The Common and Scientific Names of Fishes Caught in Spicer Creek By Seining, fyke netting, and electrofishing

Name

Common

Scientific

Northern pike

Esox lucius

Pumpkinseed

Lepomis gibbosus

Quillback

Carpiodes cyprinus

Rock bass

Ambloplites rupestris

Spottail shiner

Notropis hudsonius

Sunfish

Lepomis spp.

Tadpole madtom

Notorus gyrinus

White crappie

Pomoxis annularis

White perch

Morone americana

White sucker

Catostomus commersoni

Yellow bullhead

Ameiurus natalis

Yellow perch

Perca flavescens

 

Table 3.6-1

Numbers of Yearling and Older Northern Pike Caught by Fyke Netting and Electrofishing and Tagged in Buckhorn Marsh Impoundment, Woods Creek, Gun Creek, Spicer Creek, and Big Six Mile Creek During 2003 by Length Category.

Location

Number

 

<399

400-499

500-599

600-699

>700

Buckhorn Marsh impoundment

45

19

4

0

0

Woods Creek

10

39

71

30

12

Gun Creek

26

23

25

33

17

Spicer Creek

3

4

10

6

1

Big Six Mile Creek

2

4

4

4

4

 

Table 3.6-2

Mean Lengths of Young-of-the-Year Northern Pike Caught by Seining in Buckhorn Marsh Impoundment and in Woods Creek, Gun Creek, and Big Six Mile Creek Combined During June, July, August, and September 2003. 

 

Mean length (mm)*

Month

Buckhorn Marsh impoundment

Tributaries

June

85

84

 

(9)

(25)

July

114

125

 

(13)

(7)

August

148

172

 

(34)

(8)

September

166

229

 

(21)

(6)

*Numbers of YOY are in parentheses.

 

 

Figure 3.1.1.6-1

Water Depths Along Habitat Transects in the Buckhorn Marsh Impoundment During April 2003

 

Figure 3.1.1.6-2

Water Depths along Habitat Transects in the Buckhorn Marsh Impoundment During August 2003

 

Figure 3.1.1.6-3

Substrate Types Along Habitat Transects in Buckhorn Marsh Impoundment During April 2003

 

Figure 3.1.1.6-4

Substrate Types Along Habitat Transects in Buckhorn Marsh Impoundment During August 2003

 

Figure 3.1.1.6.1-1

Percent Decaying Matter Along Habitat Transects in Buckhorn Marsh Impoundment and Burnt Ship Creek During April 2003

 

Figure 3.1.1.6.1-2

Submerged Aquatic Vegetation Density and Locations of Emergent Aquatic Vegetation along Habitat Transects in Buckhorn Marsh impoundment During April 2003

 

Figure 3.1.1.6.2-1

Percent Decaying Matter Along Habitat Transects in Buckhorn Marsh Impoundment and Burnt Ship Creek During August 2003

 

Figure 3.1.1.6.2-2

Submerged Aquatic Vegetation Density and Locations of Emergent Aquatic Vegetation along Habitat Transects in Buckhorn Marsh impoundment DURinG August 2003

 

Figure 3.1.2.6-1

Water Depths along Habitat Transects in Burnt Ship Creek During April 2003

 

Figure 3.1.2.6-2

Water Depths along Habitat Transects in Burnt Ship Creek During August 2003

 

Figure 3.1.2.6-3

Substrate Types along Habitat Transects in Burnt Ship Creek During April 2003

 

Figure 3.1.2.6-4

Substrate Types along Habitat Transects in Burnt Ship Creek During August 2003

 

Figure 3.1.2.6.1-1

Percent Decaying Matter along Habitat Transects in Burnt Ship Creek During April 2003

 

Figure 3.1.2.6.1-2

Submerged Aquatic Vegetation Density and Locations of Emergent Aquatic Vegetation along Habitat Transects in Burnt Ship Creek During April 2003

 

Figure 3.1.2.6.2-1

Percent Decaying Matter along Habitat Transects in Burnt Ship Creek During August 2003

 

Figure 3.1.2.6.2-2

Submerged Aquatic Vegetation Density and Locations of Emergent Aquatic Vegetation along Habitat Transects in Burnt Ship Creek During August 2003

 

4.0     DISCUSSION

4.1         Use of BMRP as a Nursery and for Spawning

4.1.1        Northern Pike

The capture of 77 YOY northern pike in Buckhorn Marsh impoundment and 5 YOY in Burnt Ship Creek during the period from June through September is evidence that BMRP was used as a nursery by northern pike.  Although spawning by northern pike was never observed in BMRP during 2003, there is little doubt that it occurred based on the capture of YOY northern pike and the capture of yearling and older northern pike during the spring before the capture of YOY.  From March through May, the period when northern pike are known to spawn in tributaries of the Niagara River, almost half of the 72 yearling and older northern pike caught and tagged in Buckhorn Marsh impoundment and 1 of 2 yearling and older northern pike caught and tagged in Burnt Ship Creek were capable of spawning, based on the presence of eggs or milt extruded by field technicians.

It is unlikely that the 77 YOY caught by seining in Buckhorn Marsh impoundment migrated from Burnt Ship Creek or Woods Creek.  The elevation of Burnt Ship Creek was lower than the elevation at the top of the stoplogs in the west weir from March through September during those days when the gauge in Burnt Ship Creek recorded data that were deemed reliable.  The gauge began recording data that were deemed unreliable on May 16 and continued to do so until July 1.  The water elevation in Burnt Ship Creek both before and after the period of unreliable data was about a foot, on average, below the elevation at the top of the stoplogs in the west weir (Appendix E, Figures E-1E-7).  During the period of unreliable data collection, there is no reason to believe that the water elevation in Burnt Ship Creek was above the top of the stoplogs in the west weir, based on the water elevations recorded from the period March through September in Woods Creek.  If the water elevation in Burnt Ship Creek was always below the elevation at the top of the stoplogs in the west weir, it should have been physically impossible for YOY northern pike to enter Buckhorn Marsh impoundment from Burnt Ship Creek.  Although the elevation of Woods Creek was higher than the top of the stoplogs in the east weir during 470 hourly periods from May through September, it is unlikely that YOY northern pike in Woods Creek entered Buckhorn Marsh impoundment (Appendix E, Figures E-10E-14).  YOY northern pike emigrate from spawning marshes into rivers about three weeks after hatching, when they are an average of 20 mm long (Becker 1983). Furthermore, their preferred water depth increases with length (Casselman and Lewis 1996). The length of YOY caught in Buckhorn Marsh impoundment starting in June was greater than or equal to 69 mm.  Additionally, none of the 8 YOY northern pike that were finclipped in Woods Creek from June through September were among the 77 YOY northern pike caught in Buckhorn Marsh impoundment. This is in contrast to the recapture of one YOY northern pike on July 23 in Woods Creek from among four YOY northern pike that were finclipped in Woods Creek during late June and early July.

Based on data collected during 2003, the population of northern pike in Buckhorn Marsh impoundment is essentially self-sustaining.  Passage of yearling and older northern pike into Buckhorn Marsh impoundment was a rare event.  Only one yearling and older northern pike caught outside Buckhorn Marsh impoundment (a 647 mm long male) was among the 190 fyke net captures inside Buckhorn Marsh impoundment.  That one fish was caught on March 25 in Woods Creek and recaptured in Buckhorn Marsh impoundment on May 7.  From March 25 through May 7 the elevation of Woods Creek was equal to or higher than the elevation at the top of the stoplogs in the east weir for only 8 hours on April 5[MAJ9] , and 10 hours on May 5-6 (Appendix E, Figures E-8E-10).  If passage of yearling and older northern pike into Buckhorn Marsh impoundment was limited to those times, the low frequency of passage is not surprising.  

The five YOY northern pike caught in Burnt Ship Creek could have been spawned there or in Buckhorn Marsh impoundment.  If passage of YOY from Buckhorn Marsh impoundment into Burnt Ship Creek was possible when the water elevation in Buckhorn Marsh impoundment was higher than the top of the stop logs in the west weir by 0.25 inches or more, then passage could have occurred during 10 hours on May 5-6 [MAJ10] and 1 hour on May 11 (Appendix E, Figure E-3).  However, it is more likely that the YOY caught in Burnt Ship Creek were spawned there based on the limited time available for passage and the absence of any YOY finclipped in Buckhorn Marsh impoundment among the five YOY caught in Burnt Ship Creek.

4.1.2        Largemouth Bass

The capture of 73 YOY largemouth bass in Buckhorn Marsh impoundment and 130 YOY in Burnt Ship Creek during the period from late-July through September is evidence that BMRP was used as a nursery by largemouth bass.  Although spawning by largemouth bass was never observed in BMRP during 2003, there is little doubt that it occurred based on the capture of YOY largemouth bass and the capture of yearling and older largemouth bass during the spring before the capture of YOY.  From mid-May through mid-June, the period when largemouth bass are known to spawn, two of the 7 yearling and older largemouth bass caught and tagged in Buckhorn Marsh impoundment were capable of spawning, based on the presence of eggs or milt extruded by field technicians.  During the same time period, four yearling and older largemouth bass were caught and tagged in Burnt Ship Creek.

Although it is possible that YOY largemouth bass migrated from Woods Creek into Buckhorn Marsh impoundment because the water elevation of Woods Creek was frequently higher than the top of stoplogs in the east weir starting in June, it seems unlikely based on the absence of any recaptures in Buckhorn Marsh impoundment of YOY finclipped in Woods Creek.  It is also unlikely that the 73 YOY caught by seining in Buckhorn Marsh impoundment migrated from Burnt Ship Creek for the same reasons it was unlikely for YOY northern pike and largemouth bass -- low water elevations. 

4.2         Use of BMRP by Northern Pike Compared with Grand Island Tributaries

The estimated population size of yearling and older northern pike in Buckhorn Marsh impoundment during 2003 (85 – 87) was about six to seven times smaller than that in Woods Creek and about two to three times smaller than that in Gun Creek during the period of peak abundance. A comparison of population size could not be made between Buckhorn Marsh impoundment and Burnt Ship Creek, Spicer Creek, and Big Six Mile Creek because the number of yearling and older northern pike tagged and recaptured in those creeks was not sufficient to reliably estimate population size.  However, more yearling and older northern pike appeared to use Buckhorn Marsh impoundment than Burnt Ship Creek, Spicer Creek, and, perhaps, Big Six Mile Creek based on the greater number caught in Buckhorn Marsh impoundment and the fact that the estimated population size of yearling and older northern pike in Buckhorn Marsh impoundment was considerably greater than the number of yearling and older northern pike caught by fyke netting and electrofishing in Burnt Ship Creek, Spicer Creek, and Big Six Mile Creek.  The number caught in Big Six Mile Creek may not be directly comparable to the numbers caught in Burnt Ship Creek and Spicer Creek because: 1) a fyke net was not set near the mouth of Big Six Mile Creek although one net was set near the mouth of the other two creeks and 2) the area of Big Six Mile Creek sampled is a boat basin, making it considerably wider than the other two creeks.  The mouth of Big Six Mile Creek is the entrance to Big Six Mile Marina and setting a fyke net there would have interfered with boat traffic.  Instead of setting a fyke net near the mouth of Big Six Mile Creek, two nets were set on the east shore, opposite the boat slips where the probability of a yearling and older northern pike encountering a net was most likely lower than the probability of a yearling and older northern pike encountering a net set in Burnt Ship Creek and Spicer Creek.

The greater number of YOY northern pike in Buckhorn Marsh impoundment compared with the creeks sampled in this study was probably due to a difference in emigration rates and a real difference in abundance. During most of the summer, the water elevation in Buckhorn Marsh impoundment was below the top of the stoplogs in both the west weir and the east weir, limiting the opportunity for YOY northern pike to emigrate.  In Woods Creek, Gun Creek, Big Six Mile Creek, and Spicer Creek there were no barriers preventing YOY northern pike from emigrating, a movement pattern that YOY northern pike undertake starting three weeks after hatching (Becker 1983).  Additionally, the numbers of YOY northern pike in Burnt Ship Creek, Spicer Creek, and Big Six Mile Creek before emigration were probably smaller than the number in Buckhorn Marsh impoundment based on the smaller numbers of yearling and older northern pike caught in the creeks.

4.3         Species Composition and Relative Abundance of Fish in BMRP

The species composition of fish in Buckhorn Marsh impoundment and Burnt Ship Creek differed from those of Woods Creek, Gun Creek, Spicer Creek, and Big Six Mile Creek (Table 4.3-1, Appendix F, Table F-10).  Fewer fish species were caught and observed in Buckhorn Marsh impoundment (21) and Burnt Ship Creek (25) than in Gun Creek (30), Woods Creek (33), Spicer Creek (34), and Big Six Mile Creek (35).  Eleven fish species, typically found in the Niagara River, were caught in Woods Creek but not in either Buckhorn Marsh impoundment or Burnt Ship Creek.  The species composition of fish in Gun Creek, Spicer Creek, and Big Six Mile Creek was more similar to that of Woods Creek than either that of Buckhorn Marsh impoundment or Burnt Ship Creek.  Fourteen fish species caught in Gun Creek, Spicer Creek, and Big Six Mile Creek were not caught in Buckhorn Marsh impoundment and Burnt Ship Creek.

Among the fish species common to Buckhorn Marsh impoundment, Burnt Ship Creek, and Woods Creek, those typically associated with Niagara River were relatively more abundant in Woods Creek.  For example, rock bass comprised 24.4% of all fish caught in Woods Creek but only 0.3% of all fish caught in Buckhorn Marsh impoundment and 0.4% of those caught in Burnt Ship Creek. Among the fish species common to Buckhorn Marsh impoundment, Burnt Ship Creek, and Woods Creek, those tolerant of higher water temperatures and lower DO were more abundant in Buckhorn Marsh impoundment and Burnt Ship Creek.  For example 408 central mudminnows were caught in Burnt Ship Creek and 127 were caught in Buckhorn Marsh impoundment compared with only 2 caught in Woods Creek.

4.4         Need to Increase Fish Passage into or out of BMRP

The need to increase fish passage into or out of BMRP as an approach for promoting its use by northern pike for spawning and as a nursery while maintaining BMRP goals for wildlife species differed for Buckhorn Marsh impoundment and Burnt Ship Creek depending upon whether the objective for Buckhorn Marsh impoundment is to maintain a self-sustaining population with good growth rates or to use it as seasonal spawning or nursery habitat.

4.4.1        Buckhorn Marsh Impoundment

The smaller mean length of YOY northern pike caught by seining in Buckhorn Marsh impoundment during July, August, and September compared with YOY caught in Woods Creek, Gun Creek, and Big Six Mile Creek combined could reflect emigration of larger fish from Buckhorn Marsh impoundment, higher mortality of larger fish, stunting, or a combination of the three. These factors, and winterkill, could also be responsible for the smaller mean length of yearling and older northern pike caught and tagged in Buckhorn Marsh impoundment compared with those caught and tagged in Woods Creek, Gun Creek, Big Six Mile Creek, and Spicer Creek and the absence of northern pike >600 mm long in Buckhorn Marsh impoundment.

There is no direct evidence that yearling and older northern pike or YOY emigrated from Buckhorn Marsh impoundment; none of the pike finclipped or tagged inside Buckhorn Marsh impoundment were caught outside of it.  If emigration did not occur, then the emigration rate for larger northern pike could not be higher than that for smaller fish.

The lower than expected number of northern pike >600 mm long in Buckhorn Marsh impoundment does not appear to be due to winterkill.  On March 27, the day before ice melted  enough so that fyke nets could be set in Buckhorn Marsh impoundment near the east weir for the first time, 24 dead fish were found floating there including 8 northern pike, 2 bluegill, 11 carp, 1 black crappie, 1 bullhead, and 1 largemouth bass.  The following day when more ice melted, 88 fish were found floating in Buckhorn Marsh impoundment including 7 northern pike, 33 pumpkinseed, 12 carp, 5 crappie, 1 bullhead, 25 rock bass, and 5 white sucker.  It is reasonable to believe that these fish died due to winterkill.  The eight northern pike found on March 27, although not measured, were estimated to range in length from 250 mm to 500 mm.  If they were representative of the northern pike that died and their estimated lengths were accurate, then winterkill could not have produced the lower than expected number of northern pike >600 mm long.

Higher mortality of larger YOY northern pike in Buckhorn Marsh impoundment, due to a combination of limited food availability and cannibalism, could have produced the smaller mean length of those fish.  Cannibalism among northern pike is not unusual and occurs more frequently in waters with few fish species (Inskip 1982).  Buckhorn Marsh impoundment had the fewest species among all of the areas sampled during 2003.  If the fewer species reflected limited food availability, limited food availability caused yearling and older northern pike to become cannibalistic, and the cannibalistic yearling and older northern pike fed selectively on larger YOY northern pike -- because they represented the larger food items preferred by larger northern pike, then the mean length of the remaining YOY would be smaller.  However, this does not appear to be the case because the length distribution of YOY northern pike was not truncated. 

Higher mortality of larger yearling and older northern pike could have occurred simply due to selective harvest of larger fish by anglers. Alternatively, selective harvest of larger fish could have caused stunting. Stunting, i.e., a reduction in juvenile growth and a near cessation of growth in adulthood is known to occur in northern pike populations (Diana 1987). In three Michigan lakes, high fishing mortality on larger fish resulted in an earlier age at first maturation and increased total allocation for gonadal growth at the expense of somatic growth (Diana 1983).  However, it is unlikely that selective harvest of larger fish by anglers accounts for the smaller mean length of yearling and older northern pike in Buckhorn Marsh impoundment because field technicians never saw anyone fishing there although they did see people fishing in other areas sampled during 2003.

Two environmental factors that could have caused stunting of YOY northern pike in Buckhorn Marsh impoundment are temperature and DO. Casselman (1978) reported that growth rates of YOY northern pike peaked at 21oC and decreased quickly at higher temperatures. Adelman and Smith (1970) reported that growth rates of YOY northern pike decreased gradually as DO decreased from 7 ppm to 3 or 4 ppm and then decreased more quickly, due to reduced food consumption and conversion efficiency (gain in weight/weight of food consumed). During the period when the highest water temperatures occurred in Buckhorn Marsh impoundment, June 16 through September 4, the mean was 23.3o C and 86% of the daily mean water temperature values were greater than 21o C; three of those exceeded 25o C.  During the same period, the mean DO in Buckhorn Marsh impoundment was 6.7 ppm and 57% of the daily mean DO values were below 7 ppm.

If high water temperature caused stunting, then stunting should have been more pronounced in Buckhorn Marsh impoundment because the mean water temperature from June 16 through September 4 in Buckhorn Marsh impoundment (23.3o C) was higher than that in Woods Creek (21.3o C), Gun Creek (20.8o C), and Big Six Mile Creek (21.7o C) and the three highest water temperatures among all of these water bodies occurred in Buckhorn Marsh impoundment.  As expected, the mean length of YOY northern pike caught by seining in Buckhorn Marsh impoundment was significantly smaller than the mean length of YOY northern pike caught by seining in Woods Creek, Gun Creek, and Big Six Mile Creek combined during July, August, and September.  The lower mean DO in Buckhorn Marsh impoundment from June 16 through September 4 compared with Woods Creek (8.0 ppm) and Big Six Mile Creek (7.5 ppm) is also consistent with the significant length differences for YOY northern pike.  However, the mean DO in Gun Creek (6.2 ppm) was lower than that in Buckhorn Marsh impoundment. Initially, this appeared to be inconsistent with the significantly smaller mean length of YOY northern pike caught by seining in Buckhorn Marsh impoundment compared with those caught by seining in Woods Creek, Gun Creek, and Big Six Mile Creek collectively. The YOY northern pike caught by seining in Woods Creek, Gun Creek, and Big Six Mile Creek were combined because the number caught in each of these creeks individually was not large enough for a statistical comparison.  Based on a non-statistical comparison, the mean length of YOY northern pike caught by seining in Gun Creek during July was smaller than that for YOY northern pike in Buckhorn Marsh impoundment, Woods Creek, and Big Six Mile Creek; during August and September, the mean length was larger than that for Buckhorn Marsh impoundment but smaller than those for Woods Creek and Big Six Mile Creek.  DO and temperature could have caused stunting in yearling and older northern pike in Buckhorn Marsh impoundment during the same time period considered for YOY because DO and temperature requirements of yearling and older fish are similar to those of YOY (Casselman 1978). DO may have caused stunting before that period as well.  From April 1 through June 15 -- a time period during which growth of yearling and older northern pike was likely to occur, the mean DO in Buckhorn Marsh impoundment was 6.3 ppm and about 67% of the daily mean DO values were below 7 ppm.  The mean DO in Buckhorn Marsh impoundment during that period was lower than that in Woods Creek (9.2 ppm), Gun Creek (7.1 ppm), Big Six Mile Creek (8.8 ppm), and Spicer Creek (8.5 ppm) and the percent of the daily mean DO values <7 ppm was higher than that for Woods Creek (22%), Gun Creek (56%), Big Six Mile Creel (15%), and Spicer Creek (34%).  If the number of days when DO was <7 ppm was important, then the difference in growth between northern pike caught in Buckhorn Marsh impoundment and those caught in Woods Creek, Gun Creek, Big Six Mile Creek, and Spicer Creek may have been greater than expected based on the 2003 data because most yearling and older northern pike appear to leave the creeks after spawning.  Although DO was not measured in the Niagara River during 2003, it was measured during 2001.  The minimum DO at three different locations in the Niagara River during May 2001 was >8.2 ppm and was consistently higher than that in Woods Creek, Gun Creek, Spicer Creek, and Big Six Mile Creek during the same period. 

Another factor that could have caused stunting of northern pike in Buckhorn Marsh impoundment is intraspecific competition. Reductions in food intake due to intraspecific competition or limited prey size resulted in large reductions in growth rate of a simulated population of northern pike (Diana 1987). Similarly, reduced growth rates of yearling and older northern pike in Escanaba Lake occurred as population density and competition for food increased (Kempinger and Carline 1978). In 12 Minnesota lakes and 17 Wisconsin lakes, lower growth rates occurred when the density of yearling and older northern pike exceeded 13 per hectare (Pierce and Tomcko. 2003).   The open water area of Buckhorn Marsh impoundment is approximately 3.5 hectares.  Therefore, based on a population estimate of 85 yearling and older northern pike, the density in Buckhorn Marsh impoundment (24 fish/ha) exceeds the value at which a density dependent reduction in growth is expected by almost a factor of two.  Therefore, it is likely that intraspecific competition was an important factor contributing to the smaller mean length of yearling and older northern pike tagged in Buckhorn Marsh impoundment compared with those tagged in Woods Creek, Gun Creek, Big Six Mile Creek, and Spicer Creek. 

If intraspecific competition was also an important factor contributing to the smaller mean length of YOY northern pike caught in Buckhorn Marsh impoundment compared with those tagged in Woods Creek, Gun Creek, and Big Six Mile Creek, then the density in Buckhorn Marsh impoundment should have been higher.  As expected, the catch per seine haul of YOY northern pike in Buckhorn Marsh impoundment was 10 times higher than that in Woods Creek and over three times higher than that in Gun Creek and in Big Six Mile Creek.

If low DO and high temperature along with intraspecific competition caused stunting under current conditions, they would still cause stunting if passage into Buckhorn Marsh impoundment were increased.  To alleviate stunting, northern pike passage out of Buckhorn Marsh impoundment would need to be provided after spawning.  If that were done, passage into the marsh during the next spawning season might be needed.  This would be equivalent to using the impoundment as seasonal spawning and nursery habitat. 

Increasing passage for spawning northern pike into Buckhorn Marsh impoundment from Woods Creek would likely require lowering the stoplog height of the east weir during the spring.  From March through May 2003, when the spawning migration of northern pike was at it its peak, the water level in Woods Creek infrequently exceeded the stoplog height. Keeping the lower stoplog height during the spring and the summer would be needed to increase northern pike passage out of Buckhorn Marsh impoundment into Woods Creek after spawning.  From March through mid-June 2003 the water level in Buckhorn Marsh impoundment was higher than the stoplog height of the east weir. Yet, no northern pike appeared to leave the impoundment. Lowering the stoplog height during 2003 would have lowered the water level in Buckhorn Marsh impoundment and increased the influence of daily water fluctuations in the Niagara River.  Both of those changes in water level would not be consistent with management of the Buckhorn Marsh impoundment for wildlife, which includes maintaining stable and higher water levels – approximating historic levels (Anderson 1995). 

Even if lowering the stoplog height in the east weir were acceptable, it would probably do little to improve the relatively poor habitat of Buckhorn Marsh impoundment for spawning and as a nursery.  The most abundant EAV was cattail, the poorest vegetation type for spawning (Casselman and Lewis 1996), which formed a dense, almost monotypic stand.  One of the most abundant SAV species was pondweed, also a poor vegetation type for spawning (Casselman and Lewis 1996).  Additionally, the banks of Buckhorn Marsh impoundment were steeply sloped, which do not provide expansive shallow water areas that characterize relatively good spawning habitat for northern pike (Casselman and Lewis 1996). 

Increasing passage for spawning northern pike into Buckhorn Marsh impoundment from Burnt Ship Creek would likely provide little benefit unless access to Burnt Ship Creek was improved and the stoplog height of the west weir were lowered.  Lowering the stoplog height of the west weir would cause the same concerns as lowering the stoplog height of the east weir.

4.4.2        Burnt Ship Creek

The relatively small number of yearling and older northern pike caught in Burnt Ship Creek may be due to its relatively poor spawning habitat, limited access from the Niagara River, homing behavior, or a combination of these.  A large, dense, almost monotypic cattail stand appears to limit the migration of northern pike both into Burnt Ship Creek from the Niagara River and out of the creek.  Based on an aerial photo from 1951, Burnt Ship Creek was an open channel from its mouth, east to beyond the I-190.  Since then, the aerial extent of cattails in Burnt Ship Creek has expanded to the point that there is little open water in a large portion of the creek.   The most abundant EAV in Burnt Ship Creek was cattail, the poorest vegetation type for northern pike spawning (Casselman and Lewis 1996),

Removing cattails to create a channel from the Niagara River would increase access to Burnt Ship Creek but may not initially produce a large increase in the number of yearling and older northern pike that use it.  Harrison (1978) suggested that yearling and older northern pike from the Niagara River either have a strong homing tendency or they do not move far from the creek in which they spawned.  If so, then the number of northern pike that currently return to Burnt Ship Creek may be low and it may take years to re-establish a larger population. 

Removing cattails from Burnt Ship Creek should also improve water quality by increasing the exchange of water with the Niagara River.  During the period June 16 through September 4, which includes the period when YOY northern pike were caught in Burnt Ship Creek, the mean DO (4.1 ppm) was much lower than that in Woods Creek (8.0 ppm), Gun Creek (6.1 ppm), Big Six Mile Creek (7.5 ppm), Spicer Creek (7.0 ppm), and even Buckhorn Marsh impoundment (6.7 ppm).  Conductivity was also higher in Burnt Ship Creek during the period June 16 through September 4 and during the period from April 1 through June 15.

4.5         Conditions for Unbiased Population Estimates

Results from this study were used to examine the conditions that must be met for unbiased population estimates of yearling and older northern pike in Buckhorn Marsh impoundment, Woods Creek, and Gun Creek and an unbiased estimate of YOY northern pike in Buckhorn Marsh impoundment. 

The first condition for unbiased estimates is that marked fish suffered the same natural mortality as unmarked fish. The tags used for yearling and older fish and the fin clips for YOY were minimally invasive and did not make the fish more visible to predators.  Additionally, no recaptured fish were observed to have infected or ulcerated tag wounds or fins. Therefore, it is reasonable to believe that marked fish suffered the same natural mortality rate as unmarked fish. 

The second condition for unbiased estimates is that marked fish were as vulnerable to capture as the unmarked ones.  The fish marked in our study were those that occurred naturally, i.e., they were not transported from other locations nor were they hatchery fish.  The tags and finclips did not cause fish to become entangled in fyke nets and seines nor make them more visible during electrofishing. Therefore, it is reasonable to believe that marked fish were as vulnerable to capture as the unmarked ones.

The third condition for unbiased estimates is that marked fish did not lose their mark.  Retention of PIT tags, the principal tag used, in yearling and older fish was greater than 98%.  The maximum period of time between a fish being finclipped and recaptured was relatively short, reducing the likelihood that a fin would regenerated enough that a field technician would not recognize a clipped fin. Therefore, loss of marks was considered negligible and no adjustment to population estimates was needed for lost of marks.

The fourth condition for unbiased estimates is that either the marked fish or the total fishing effort was randomly distributed over the population being sampled.  In Buckhorn Marsh impoundment: 1) yearling and older northern pike migrated from the eastern end to the western end and back, increasing the likelihood of mixing with unmarked fish and 2) seining for YOY northern pike was conducted at the eastern end, the western end, and in between.  In Woods Creek and Gun Creek, sampling for yearling and older northern pike occurred over a protracted period of time. Coupled with the placement of fyke nets near the mouth of both creeks and the active movement of yearling and older fish during the spring, there was a high probability that random mixing occurred.  Additionally, the two fyke nets in Gun Creek were separated by about 0.5 miles. Therefore, it is reasonable to believe that marked fish became randomly mixed with unmarked fish or the distribution of fishing effort in subsequent sampling was proportional to the number of fish present in different parts of the areas sampled.

The fifth condition for unbiased estimates is that all marks were recognized and reported on recovery.  Recaptures of marked fish were based exclusively on collections made by field crews who marked the fish and who followed standard operating procedures.  Therefore, it is very likely that all marks were recognized and reported.

The sixth condition, which must be met for unbiased estimates for closed populations, is negligible recruitment to the catchable population during the time the recaptures were being made.  In Buckhorn Marsh impoundment, only one yearling and older northern pike tagged outside Buckhorn Marsh impoundment was subsequently recaptured inside.  Therefore, it is reasonable to believe that only negligible recruitment occurred.

The sixth condition for unbiased estimates for closed populations is not required for open populations. It appears that the populations of yearling and older northern pike in Woods Creek and Gun Creek were open.  Yearling and older northern pike were caught in a physiological condition where they could spawn from March through June 2003.  It is unlikely that the same fish remained in spawning condition for this length of time because northern pike spawning has been reported to occur over a two to five day period (Scott and Crossman 1973).  More likely, northern pike were probably migrating into Woods Creek and Gun Creek over the 4-month period to spawn.  This is not surprising from the perspective of life history theory because it allows northern pike to spread the risk of poor conditions during spawning over a longer period of time, assuring that at least some fish will spawn when conditions are good. The variable catch over the four-month period from March through June probably reflects northern pike migrating out of Woods Creek and Gun Creek after spawning at the same time that northern pike are migrating in to spawn. Therefore, the use of methods for open populations to estimate abundance in Woods Creek and Gun Creek during this study was more appropriate than the use of methods for closed populations. 

The rule for assuring an unbiased estimate of abundance using the Jolly-Seber 4-catch method is that the total recaptures during the period of the estimate should be larger than 3 or 4 (Ricker 1975).  This rule was not met for Woods Creek and Gun Creek during every recapture time period.  The accuracy of abundance estimates using Bailey’s triple-catch method also depends principally upon the numbers recaptured during subsequent time periods and particularly the number during the last time period.  For both Woods Creek and Gun Creek the number recaptured during the last time period using Bailey’s triple-catch method was only one.  The extent of the bias in these estimates, if bias exists, cannot be determined from the existing data.

As a result of migration, it also appears that the numbers of yearling and older northern pike in Woods Creek and Gun Creek were not constant over time. The open population methods provide estimates of abundance for distinct time periods during the study but not for the entire study.  Those estimates for Woods Creek and Gun Creek are directly comparable to one another but are not to the population estimates for Buckhorn Marsh impoundment, which are estimates of the entire population.  Nonetheless, it is reasonable to conclude that the number of yearling and older northern pike in Buckhorn Marsh impoundment was less than the number that used Woods Creek and Gun Creek.

The open population estimates for Woods Creek and Gun Creek are not directly comparable with the closed population estimates calculated by Harrison (1978), who did not have enough recaptures to calculate open population estimates.  However, the estimated number of yearling and older northern pike was greater in Woods Creek compared with Gun Creek regardless of whether closed or open population methods were used.

 

Table 4.3-1

Fishes [DD11] Caught and Observed in Buckhorn Marsh Impoundment, Burnt Ship Creek, Woods Creek, Gun Creek, Big Six Mile Creek and Spicer Creek During 2003

Common Name

Buckhorn Marsh Impoundment

Burnt Ship Creek

Woods Creek

Gun Creek

Big Six Mile Creek

Spicer Creek

Banded killifish

X

X

X

X

X

X

Black crappie

X

X

X

X

X

X

Bluegill

X

X

X

X

X

X

Bluntnose minnow

X

X

 

X

X

X

Bowfin

X

X

X

X

X

X

Brindled madtom

 

 

 

 

 

X

Brook silverside

 

 

X

 

X

X

Brook stickleback

X

X

 

X

 

 

Brown bullhead

X

X

X

X

X

X

Carp

X

X

X

X

X

X

Central mudminnow

X

X

X

X

 

X

Channel catfish

 

 

X

 

 

 

Common shiner

X

X

X

X

X

X

Creek chub

 

X

X

X

X

X

Emerald shiner

X

X

X

X

X1

X

European rudd

X

X

X

X

X

X

Freshwater drum

 

 

X

X

X

X

Gizzard shad

 

 

X

X

X

X

Golden shiner

X

X

X

X

X

X

 

Table 4.3-1 (Cont.)

Fishes Caught and Observed in Buckhorn Marsh Impoundment, Burnt Ship Creek, Woods Creek, Gun Creek, Big Six Mile Creek and Spicer Creek During 2003

Common Name

Buckhorn Marsh Impoundment

Burnt Ship Creek

Woods Creek

Gun Creek

Big Six Mile Creek

Spicer Creek

Goldfish

X

X

X

X

X

X

Greater redhorse

 

 

X

 

 

 

Green Sunfish

X

X

 

X

X

X

Hornyhead chub

 

 

 

 

 

X

Johnny darter

 

 

 

 

X

 

Largemouth bass

X

X

X

X

X

X

Logperch

 

 

 

X1

 

 

Longnose gar

 

 

 

 

X

 

Minnow family

X

X

X

X

X

X

Muskellunge

 

X

X

X

X

X

Northern hog sucker

 

 

 

X

 

X

Northern pike

X

X

X

X

X

X

Pumpkinseed

X

X

X

X

X

X

Quillback

 

 

X

 

X

X

Rainbow trout

 

 

X

 

X

 

Redhorse

 

 

X

X

X

 

River redhorse

 

 

X

 

X

 

Rock bass

X

X

X

X

X

X

Round Goby

 

 

 

 

X

 

Smallmouth bass

 

 

X1

 

X

 

 

Table 4.3-1 (Cont.)

Fishes Caught and Observed in Buckhorn Marsh Impoundment, Burnt Ship Creek, Woods Creek, Gun Creek, Big Six Mile Creek and Spicer Creek During 2003

Common Name

Buckhorn Marsh Impoundment

Burnt Ship Creek

Woods Creek

Gun Creek

Big Six Mile Creek

Spicer Creek

Spottail shiner

X

X

X

X

X

X

Sticklebacks

 

X

 

 

 

 

Sunfish

X

X

X

X

X

X

Sunfish family

X

 

X

X1

X

 

Tadpole madtom

X

X

X

X

 

X

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

White bass

 

 

 

 

X

 

White crappie

 

 

X

X

X

X

White perch

 

 

 

 

X

X

White sucker

 

X

X

X

X

X

Yellow Bullhead

 

 

X

 

 

X

Yellow perch

 

X

X

X

X

X

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Total Number of Species2 Caught and Observed

21

25

33

30

35

34

1 Observed but not caught.

2 Does not include a count of family or genera.

5.0     CONCLUSIONS

The objectives of this study were to: 1) determine whether northern pike, largemouth bass, and yellow perch used the Buckhorn Marsh Restoration Project (BMRP) for spawning and as a nursery, and if so, estimate how many used it and establish whether they traversed either of the two weirs in BMRP; 2) compare the use of Woods Creek, Gun Creek, Spicer Creek, and Big Six Mile Creek by northern pike for spawning and as a nursery with that of BMRP; 3) determine the relative abundance and composition of species other than northern pike, largemouth bass, and yellow perch in BMRP and Woods Creek; and 4) evaluate the need to increase fish passage into or out of BMRP as an approach for promoting its use by northern pike for spawning and as a nursery while maintaining BMRP goals for wildlife species.  Based on the data collected during 2003, the following inferences and conclusions are valid.

5.1         Use of BMRP for Spawning and as a Nursery

·         BMRP is used by northern pike and largemouth bass use for spawning and as a nursery and by yellow perch as a nursery.

·         Within BMRP, Buckhorn Marsh impoundment is used more extensively than Burnt Ship Creek by both YOY and yearling and older northern pike but less extensively than Burnt Ship Creek by YOY largemouth bass. 

·         Within BMRP, Buckhorn Marsh impoundment was not used by yellow perch, and Burnt Ship Creek was lightly used by yellow perch YOY as a nursery.

·         Northern pike do not migrate out of Buckhorn Marsh impoundment and rarely migrate into it.

·         Largemouth bass did not migrate into or out of Buckhorn Marsh impoundment. 

·         Migration of northern pike and largemouth bass into Burnt Ship Creek from the Niagara River and out of Burnt Ship Creek to the Niagara River is limited by dense cattail stands.

·         Migration of northern pike and largemouth bass into Burnt Ship Creek from Buckhorn Marsh impoundment is limited by water elevations lower than the top of the weir separating Burnt Ship Creek and Buckhorn Marsh impoundment.

5.2         Use of BMRP by Northern Pike Compared with Grand Island Tributaries

·         Fewer yearling and older northern pike use Buckhorn Marsh impoundment than Woods Creek and Gun Creek but more used Buckhorn Marsh impoundment than Burnt Ship Creek, Big Six Mile Creek, and Spicer Creek. 

5.3         Species Composition and Relative Abundance of Fish in BMRP

·         The species composition and relative abundance of fish in Buckhorn Marsh impoundment and in Burnt Ship Creek differ from those of fish in Woods Creek and appear to reflect limited access from the Niagara River and lower water quality. 

5.4         Need to Increase Fish Passage into or out of BMRP

·         Increasing fish passage into Buckhorn Marsh impoundment is not needed to promote its use by northern pike for spawning and as a nursery if the objective is to maintain a self sustaining population; doing so might increase competition among northern pike.

·         Increasing fish passage out of Buckhorn Marsh impoundment after spawning may be needed to reduce population density if the objective is to maintain a self sustaining population in the impoundment with good growth rates.

·         If the objective were to use Buckhorn Marsh impoundment as seasonal spawning and nursery habitat for northern pike, then increasing fish passage into and out of the impoundment annually would be needed.

·         Increasing fish passage into or out of Buckhorn Marsh impoundment would likely involve lowering the stoplog height of at least one weir during the spring and summer.

·         Lowering the stoplog height of either weir would lower the water level in Buckhorn Marsh impoundment and make it more susceptible to daily changes in the water level of the Niagara River, which would not help maintain BMRP goals for wildlife species or improve the spawning and nursery habitat of the impoundment.

·         Increasing fish passage into and out of Burnt Ship Creek would likely involve creating a more open channel, which should promote use of the creek by northern pike for spawning and as a nursery because relatively few northern pike use it now and access appears to be limited by dense stands of cattails. 

 

REFERENCES

R1019215837 \ Text Reference: Adelman and Smith 1970 \ Adelman, I.R., and L.L. Smith.  1970.  Effect of oxygen on growth and food conversion efficiency of northern pike.  The Progressive Fish Culturist 32:93-96.

R1019215351 \ Text Reference: Anderson 1995 \ Anderson, B.E.  1995.  Conceptual Design Report for Buckhorn Marsh Restoration Phase I.  New York State Department of Environmental Conservation, Bureau of Engineering Services. 

R1019215424 \ Text Reference: Becker 1983 \ Becker, G.C.  1983.  Fishes of Wisconsin.  Madison: University of Wisconsin Press.

R1019215838 \ Text Reference: Casselman 1978 \ Casselman, J.M.  1978.  Effects of Environmental Factors on Growth, Survival, Activity, and Exploitation of Northern Pike.  In: Selected Coolwater Fishes of North America.   American Fisheries Society.  pp. 114-28.

R1019215074 \ Text Reference: Casselman and Lewis 1996 \ Casselman, J.M., and C.A. Lewis.  1996.  Habitat requirements of northern pike (Esox lucius).  Can. J. Fish. and Aquat. Sci. 53(Suppl.1)161-71.

R1019215840 \ Text Reference: Diana 1987 \ Diana, J.S.  1987.  Simulation of mechanisms causing stunting in northern pike populations.  Trans. Amer. Fish. Soc. 116:612-17.

R1019215839 \ Text Reference: Diana 1983 \ Diana, J.S.  1983.  Growth, maturation, and production of northern pike in three Michigan lakes.  Trans. Amer. Fish. Soc. 112:38-46.

R1019215356 \ Text Reference: Environnement Illimité 2002 \ Environnement Illimité.  2002.  Niagara River Fish Survey Report for the Year 2001, prep. for the New York Power Authority. 

R42 \ Text Reference: Harrison 1978 \ Harrison, Edward.  1978.  Comparative ecologic life histories of sympatric populations of Esox lucius and Esox masquinongy of the upper Niagara River and its local watershed.  Ph.D. dissertation, SUNY at Buffalo .

R21 \ Text Reference: Harrison and Hadley 1983 \ Harrison, Edward J., and Wayne F. Hadley.  1983.  Biology of the northern pike in the upper Niagara River watershed (Esox lucius).  New York Fish and Game Journal 30(1):57-66.

R1019215089 \ Text Reference: Inskip 1982 \ Inskip, P.D.  1982.  Habitat Suitability Index Models: Northern Pike.  FWS/OBS-82/10.17.  U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service. 

R1019215841 \ Text Reference: Kempinger and Carline 1978 \ Kempinger, J.J., and R.F. Carline.  1978.  Dynamics of the Northern Pike Population and Changes that Occurred with a Minimum Size Limit in Escanaba Lake, Wisconsin.  In: Selected Coolwater Fishes of North America.  American Fisheries Society.  pp. 382-89.

R1019215842 \ Text Reference: Pierce and Tomcko 2003 \ Pierce, R.B., and C.M. Tomcko.  2003.  Density dependence in growth and size structure of northern pike populations.  N. Am. J. Fish. Mgt. 23:331-39.

R1019215843 \ Text Reference: Ricker 1975 \ Ricker, W.E.  1975.  Computation and Interpretation of Biological Statistics of Fish Populations.  Department of Fisheries and the Environment.  Ottawa, Ont. 

R1019215659 \ Text Reference: Roblee 1998 \ Roblee, Kenneth.  1998.  Buckhorn Marsh Restoration Project:  Final Progress Report.  Prep. for USEPA Great Lakes National Program Office.  New York State Department of Environmental Conservation. 

R1019215844 \ Text Reference: SAS 1989 \ SAS Institute, Inc.  1989.  SAS/STAT User's Guide, 4th ed.  Cary, NC: SAS Institute, Inc.

R1019215112 \ Text Reference: Scott and Crossman 1973 \ Scott, W.B., and E.J. Crossman.  1973.  Freshwater Fishes of Canada, Bulletin no. 184.  Fisheries Research Board of Canada.

 

 
 
 
 
Appendix A – Standard Operating Procedures

 

 

Standard Operating Procedures

 
Appendix B – Lengths of Yearling and Older and Young-of-the Year Northern Pike

 

 

Table B-1

Lengths (mm) of yearling and older northern pike tagged in Woods Creek, Gun Creek, Buckhorn Marsh Impoundment, Spicer Creek, and Big Six Mile Creek Through July 3, 2003

Woods Creek

Gun Creek

Buckhorn Marsh

Spicer Creek

Big Six Mile Creek

306

144

295

335

363

310

305

309

359

480

320

332

320

397

482

327

338

324

406

490

327

343

325

424

510

330

349

327

436

572

351

354

328

484

590

392

363

330

510

606

396

366

330

513

628

397

368

331

514

629

402

370

331

533

652

405

376

332

570

711

407

377

334

580

731

407

378

335

589

802

413

378

336

590

817

414

379

338

591

 

414

380

339

593

 

417

381

339

615

 

417

382

342

660

 

424

388

343

670

 

427

390

348

671

 

428

391

348

680

 

431

394

356

684

 

432

396

356

754

 

435

396

356

 

 

436

398

358

 

 

437

406

364

 

 

438

407

366

 

 

441

408

366

 

 

444

410

368

 

 

445

412

372

 

 

452

420

374

 

 

452

420

375

 

 

459

421

375

 

 

461

429

377

 

 

461

437

381

 

 

466

452

384

 

 

469

452

385

 

 

471

454

385

 

 

474

455

385

 

 

475

462

385

 

 

476

466

385

 

 

476

470

391

 

 

481

471

392

 

 

482

477

397

 

 

482

478

405

 

 

489

490

407

 

 

490

495

407

 

 

495

496

409

 

 

500

502

410

 

 

502

514

410

 

 

502

517

413

 

 

502

518

415

 

 

502

520

420

 

 

503

522

423

 

 

506

522

424

 

 

508

525

434

 

 

509

527

434

 

 

509

528

435

 

 

510

532

444

 

 

510

533

470

 

 

514

535

472

 

 

515

542

483

 

 

516

545

485

 

 

517

548

500

 

 

517

557

505

 

 

517

560

511

 

 

518

562

575

 

 

518

569

 

 

 

520

572

 

 

 

521

577

 

 

 

522

585

 

 

 

524

590

 

 

 

525

598

 

 

 

528

602

 

 

 

533

612

 

 

 

533

618

 

 

 

533

620

 

 

 

534

621

 

 

 

534

621

 

 

 

535

622

 

 

 

537

625

 

 

 

538

625

 

 

 

539

631

 

 

 

541

631

 

 

 

542

632

 

 

 

548

633

 

 

 

550

637

 

 

 

550

640

 

 

 

552

642

 

 

 

560

645

 

 

 

560

660

 

 

 

561

662

 

 

 

562

668

 

 

 

563

668

 

 

 

565

669

 

 

 

565

670

 

 

 

569

671

 

 

 

569

679

 

 

 

570

680

 

 

 

570

682

 

 

 

572

684

 

 

 

572

688

 

 

 

573

690

 

 

 

577

692

 

 

 

579

693

 

 

 

580

694

 

 

 

580

700

 

 

 

581

701

 

 

 

582

706

 

 

 

584

708

 

 

 

585

710

 

 

 

585

720

 

 

 

589

726

 

 

 

590

728

 

 

 

591

729

 

 

 

592

731

 

 

 

595

737

 

 

 

597

742

 

 

 

599

752

 

 

 

602

760

 

 

 

605

767

 

 

 

608

768

 

 

 

617

770

 

 

 

617

 

 

 

 

618

 

 

 

 

622

 

 

 

 

625

 

 

 

 

632

 

 

 

 

632

 

 

 

 

632

 

 

 

 

634

 

 

 

 

638

 

 

 

 

641

 

 

 

 

642

 

 

 

 

643

 

 

 

 

647

 

 

 

 

649

 

 

 

 

655

 

 

 

 

657

 

 

 

 

666

 

 

 

 

667

 

 

 

 

667

 

 

 

 

672

 

 

 

 

675

 

 

 

 

682

 

 

 

 

687

 

 

 

 

691

 

 

 

 

692

 

 

 

 

695

 

 

 

 

700

 

 

 

 

704

 

 

 

 

710

 

 

 

 

712

 

 

 

 

714

 

 

 

 

715

 

 

 

 

717

 

 

 

 

722

 

 

 

 

748

 

 

 

 

749