Niagara Power Project FERC No. 2216

 

WATER TEMPERATURES OF THE NIAGARA RIVER AND ITS U.S. TRIBUTARIES

 

HTML Format.  Text only

 

Prepared for: New York Power Authority 

Prepared by: URS Corporation

 

August 2005

 

___________________________________________________

 

Copyright © 2005 New York Power Authority

 

EXECUTIVE SUMMARY

This study was conducted to: 1) determine if water level fluctuations in the Niagara River affect water temperatures in the Niagara River, U.S. tributaries of the Niagara River, and Lewiston Reservoir, and, if so, 2) describe the nature and extent of the temperature effects and their potential influence on the behavior and survival of fish. 

The study area extended from the head of the Niagara River to its mouth and was divided into six zones based on physical habitat characteristics (water depth, water velocity, substrate, presence of vegetation) that influence the distribution of fish species:

·         Zone 1 - Buckhorn Marsh and tributaries of the Niagara River

·         Zone 2 -  Deeper portions of the upper Niagara River (the channel) 

·         Zone 3 -  Shallower portions of the upper Niagara River (shoals)

·         Zone 4 -  The lower Niagara River between Niagara Falls and the tailrace of the Niagara Power Project (the gorge)

·         Zone 5 -  The lower Niagara River downstream of the tailrace of the Niagara Power Project

·         Zone 6 -  Lewiston Reservoir

The first objective was addressed by comparing portions of the six zones that were influenced by water level changes in the Niagara River with appropriate reference conditions to determine if there were differences in maximum and minimum water temperatures that occur daily and seasonally, the periodicity of temperature changes, and hourly rate of change in water temperature.  The second objective was addressed by describing the temperatures in zones affected by water level changes in the Niagara River and assessing the potential for those temperature changes to affect the behavior and survival of fish from 18 species considered representative of their communities, listed as threatened or endangered species, or known to be the target of important recreational fisheries.

Water level and water temperature data were collected from temporary gauges during 2002 and 2003.  During 2002:

·         Water temperature was recorded every 15-minutes from April to November 2002 at 21 sites in the upper and lower Niagara River, Woods Creek, Buckhorn Marsh, Burnt Ship Creek, Big Sixmile Creek, Gun Creek, Spicer Creek, and around Strawberry Island;

·         Water level was recorded every 15-minutes from March to November 2002 at 10 temporary gauge locations in the upper and lower Niagara River, Woods Creek, Buckhorn Marsh, and Burnt Ship Creek;

·         Water level was recorded at eight permanent water level gauges in the upper and lower Niagara River and Lewiston Reservoir.

During 2003, water temperature data were collected from February or March, to November in:

·         Burnt Ship Creek, Buckhorn Marsh, Woods Creek, Gun Creek, Spicer Creek, Big Sixmile Creek, Tonawanda Creek, Ellicott Creek, Cayuga Creek, Gill Creek, Fish Creek, Lewiston Reservoir;

·         The channel of the upper Niagara River upstream of the mouth of Spicer Creek, downstream of the mouth of Woods Creek, just upstream of the Niagara Power Project intakes, and near the Peace Bridge;

·         The lower Niagara River upstream of the Niagara Power Project tailrace, in the tailrace, just downstream of the tailrace, at the Lewiston Landing, Artpark, Joseph Davis State Park, and the Youngstown Yacht Club.

Water level was recorded hourly during 2003 from February or March, to November in:

·         Burnt Ship Creek, Buckhorn Marsh, Woods Creek, Gun Creek, Spicer Creek, Big Sixmile Creek, Tonawanda Creek, Ellicott Creek, Cayuga Creek;

·         The lower Niagara River upstream of the Niagara Power Project tailrace, Artpark, Lewiston Landing, Joseph Davis State Park, and near the Youngstown Yacht Club.

Data from permanent water level gauges in the upper Niagara River and Lewiston Reservoir were also collected in 2003 as in 2002.  Water level data from Lewiston Reservoir, Material Dock, Slater’s Point, NYPA Intake, Tonawanda Island, Huntley, Black Creek, Frenchman’s Creek, Fort Erie, and Port Weller (Lake Ontario) were used in this analysis.  Temporary water level gauge data were plotted in relation to permanent gauge data in the upper Niagara River, Lake Ontario or Lewiston Reservoir, as appropriate. 

Hourly air temperature, relative humidity, barometric pressure, solar radiation, precipitation, and wind direction and speed data were collected at two local, National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) weather stations (Niagara Falls International Airport and Buffalo Niagara International Airport) from March 2002 to November 2002 and from February 2003 to November 2003. 

Water level fluctuations did not affect the normal range in seasonal and diurnal temperatures and did not affect the hourly rate of temperature change anywhere in Zones 2, 4, 5, and 6.  However, water level fluctuations did cause more rapid changes in water temperature at several gauges in Zones 1 and 3. Zone 1 water temperature changes ranging from –6.5 to +2.3 ºC/hour occurred at 16 of 39 gauges, mostly in the lower reaches of tributaries near the confluence with the Niagara River.  In Zone 3, water temperature changes ranging from -4.1 to +4.4 ºC/hour occurred at two of seven locations, both at or immediately downstream of tributary mouths.  The areal extent of the hourly temperature changes was not evaluated. 

The potential for water temperature changes of the magnitude that occurred during 2002 and 2003 to affect the behavior and survival of fishes in the study area appears relatively small.  They are adapted to the range of daily and seasonal water temperatures that occur in the study area.  The rate of change in water temperature at all locations was not large enough to potentially reduce survival rates because of cold shock or heat shock or to potentially cause avoidance behavior in most species and life stages.  More frequent water temperature changes may displace fish in limited portions of the study area but the potential is considered relatively small.   

 

ABBREVIATIONS

Agencies

FERC               Federal Energy Regulatory Commission

IJC                   International Joint Commission

INBC               International Niagara Board of Control

NOAA             National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration

USFWS            United States Fish and Wildlife Service

Units of Measure

D°CAT               hourly change in air temperature in degrees Centigrade (positive or negative)

D°CWT              hourly change in water temperature in degrees Centigrade (positive or negative)

DT                    change in temperature

DWL                hourly change in water level in feet (positive or negative)

C                      Celsius, Centigrade

cfs                    cubic feet per second

F                      Fahrenheit

fps                    feet per second

ft                      feet

MW                 megawatt

psi                    pounds per square inch

USLSD            U.S. Lake Survey Datum 1935

Environmental

DO                   dissolved oxygen

EAV                emergent aquatic vegetation

LILT                lower incipient lethal temperature

SAV                 submerged aquatic vegetation

UILT                upper incipient lethal temperature

Miscellaneous

LPGP               Lewiston Pump Generating Plant

NFIA               Niagara Falls International Airport

NYPA              New York Power Authority

OPG                 Ontario Power Generation

RMNPP           Robert Moses Niagara Power Project

 

1.0     INTRODUCTION

The New York Power Authority (NYPA) is engaged in the relicensing of the Niagara Power Project (NPP) in Lewiston, Niagara County, New York.  The present operating license of the plant expires in August 2007.  As part of its preparation for the relicensing of the Niagara Project, NYPA is developing information related to the ecological, engineering, recreational, cultural, and socioeconomic aspects of the Project. 

The 1,880 megawatt (MW) (firm capacity) NPP is one of the largest non-federal hydroelectric facilities in North America.  The Project was licensed to the Power Authority of the State of New York (now the New York Power Authority) in 1957.  Construction of the Project began in 1958, and electricity was first produced in 1961.

The Project has several components.  Twin intakes are located approximately 2.6 miles above Niagara Falls, in a portion of the river referred to as the Chippawa-Grass Island Pool.  Water levels within the pool are managed using the International Niagara Control Structure, a partial dam across the river.  Water levels in the pool are raised using this structure, and drawn into the intakes.  The intake water is routed around the Falls via two large low-head conduits to a 1.8-billion-gallon forebay, lying on an east-west axis about 4 miles downstream of the Falls. The forebay is located on the east bank of the Niagara River.  At the west end of the forebay, between the forebay itself and the river, is the Robert Moses Niagara Power Plant (RMNPP), NYPA’s main generating plant at Niagara.  This plant has 13 turbines that generate electricity from water stored in the forebay.  Head is approximately 300 feet.  At the east end of the forebay is the Lewiston Pump Generating Plant (LPGP).  Under non-peak-usage conditions (i.e., at night and on weekends), water is pumped from the forebay via the plant’s 12 pumps into the 22-billion-gallon Lewiston Reservoir, which lies east of the plant.  During peak usage conditions (i.e., daytime Monday through Friday), the pumps are reversed for use as generators, and water is allowed to flow back through the plant, producing electricity.  The forebay therefore serves as headwater for the RMNPP and tailwater from the LPGP.  South of the forebay is a switchyard, which serves as the electrical interface between the Project and its service area.  Water levels in the forebay, which are directly influenced by power generation, in turn influence water levels in the Chippawa-Grass Island Pool.

For purposes of generating electricity using the Niagara River, two seasons are recognized:  tourist season and non-tourist season.  By the 1950 Niagara River Water Diversion Treaty, at least 100,000 cfs must be allowed to flow over Niagara Falls during daytime hours in the tourist season (April 1 – October 31), and at least 50,000 cfs at all other times.  Canada and the United States are entitled by international treaty to produce hydroelectric power using the remaining flows, sharing equally.

Water level fluctuations in the Chippawa-Grass Island Pool  are limited by an International Joint Commission (IJC) directive to 1.5 feet per day unless conditions triggering special provisions occur.  Water level fluctuations in both the upper and lower Niagara River are caused by a number of factors other than operation of the Niagara Power Project.  These include wind, natural flow and ice conditions, regional and long-term precipitation patterns that affect lake levels, control of Niagara Falls flow for scenic purposes, operation of power plants on the Canadian side of the river, and the backwater effect from Lake Ontario.  Water level fluctuations in the upper Niagara River from all causes are normally less than 1.5 feet per day.

During tourist season, water level fluctuations in the lower Niagara River (upstream of the RMNPP tailrace) normally amount to 10-12 feet per day.  Water level fluctuations downstream of the RMNPP tailrace are much smaller.  The average daily water level fluctuation 1.4 miles downstream of the RMNPP tailrace, during the 2002 tourist season, was approximately 1.5 feet.

Operation of the NPP can result in water level fluctuations in the Lewiston Reservoir of 3-18 feet per day, and as much as 36 feet per week.

1.1         Objectives

The objectives of this study were to: 1) determine if water level fluctuations in the Niagara River affect water temperatures in the Niagara River, U.S. tributaries of the Niagara River, and Lewiston Reservoir, and, if so, 2) describe the nature and extent of the temperature effects and their potential influence on the behavior and survival of fish.  Rather than consider all fish species occurring in the Niagara River, 18 species (focus species) considered representative of the fish community in the investigation area, listed as threatened or endangered species, or known to be the target of important recreational fisheries were selected (Table 1.1-1).  These are the same fish species considered in an earlier report that assessed the effect of water level fluctuations on habitat (Stantec et al. 2005), however, rainbow (steelhead) trout was also included in the present report.

Water level and flow fluctuations in both the upper and lower Niagara River are caused by a number of factors. Natural factors include flow surges from Lake Erie caused by wind, ice conditions, and regional and long-term precipitation patterns that affect lake levels. Manmade factors include boat wakes, regulation of Niagara Falls flows for scenic purposes, operation of hydroelectric plants on the Canadian side of the river, and operation of the NPP.  The sources and extent of water level fluctuations in the Niagara River and its tributaries were examined in detail as part of the FERC relicensing effort (URS et al. 2005a).  Because changes in water level are the result of the complex interplay between natural and multiple anthropogenic causes, it is difficult to distinguish the extent of water level change attributable to U.S./Canadian power generation versus other sources.  Therefore, while temperature effects related to water level fluctuations may be identified, it is difficult to fully quantify what proportion of these effects can be attributed to U.S./Canadian power generation.

1.2         Investigation Area and Period

The investigation area for this analysis included the Niagara River from the Peace Bridge to its mouth on Lake Ontario, it’s U.S. tributaries, and the Lewiston Reservoir (Figure 1.2-1).  The period of analysis considered is from March 1st to November 30th,  2002 and 2003, however, the period from April 1st to October 31st is a focus of particular interest.  During this latter period, referred to as the ‘tourist season’, regular water level fluctuations occur between day and night due to treaty obligations requiring minimum flows of 100,000 cfs over Niagara Falls during daylight hours.  Water level fluctuation in the upper Niagara River from all causes, including power production by both U.S. and Canadian plants and natural factors, normally amounts to less than 1.5 feet per day as measured at Material Dock, the official monitoring gauge. The 1.5 foot daily water level fluctuation is allowed by the 1993 Directive of the International Niagara Board of Control (INBC). The portion of upper-river water level changes attributable to power production is the result of varying withdrawals of water by  NYPA and Ontario Power Generation (OPG). It was found that regulation of the Chippawa-Grass Island Pool water levels has a more pronounced effect during the tourist than the non-tourist period. The reason for this is that during non-tourist hours the pool is maintained at a lower water level so that the scenic Falls flow remains close to 50,000 cfs.  To compensate for water levels lower than the long-term mean specified by the 1993 Directive, the pool elevation is higher during tourist hours. 

Tributary streams considered in this investigation are Big Sixmile Creek, Spicer Creek, Gun Creek, and the Burnt Ship Creek/Woods Creek/Buckhorn Marsh complex on Grand Island; and Tonawanda Creek, Ellicott Creek and Cayuga Creek on the mainland.  Sections of these tributary streams are exposed to water level fluctuations in the Chippawa-Grass Island Pool.  Gill Creek is a mainland tributary that receives flow augmentation from Lewiston Reservoir during summer months, and may therefore also be subject to temperature effects.

In addition to these drainages, Fish Creek, a tributary to the lower Niagara River is also examined.  However, there is no potential for direct effects on water temperature on Fish Creek from water level fluctuations in the Niagara River.  Fish Creek is exposed to groundwater seepage from Lewiston Reservoir at both locations where temperatures were monitored in 2003 (URS et al. 2005b).  This creek enters the lower Niagara River via a high gradient cascade and the limited area of channel exposed to water level fluctuations in the lower Niagara River does not provide suitable fish habitat. 

1.3         Causes of Water Temperature Fluctuations in the Investigation Area

There are three causes of water temperature fluctuation in the Niagara River and its tributaries.  These include: seasonal variations in meteorological factors; diurnal (daily) variations in meteorological factors; and mixing of different water bodies at different temperatures.  These three sources of temperature fluctuation vary in terms of the rate at which temperature changes occur, and the extent of area affected. 

Temperature changes due to mixing can be associated with large rainfall events, natural changes in river elevation (e.g., due to storm surges, ice flows, etc.), changes in river elevation due to U.S./Canadian power generation, and possibly other sources such as boat wakes.  The degree of temperature change is most pronounced when the difference in temperature between the water bodies being mixed is greatest.  Changes in water temperature resulting from mixing tend to occur much more rapidly than diurnal fluctuations.  For example, if fluctuations in Niagara River water levels cause river water to flow into and recede from tributaries, and tributary water is much warmer or cooler than the river water, water temperatures in the zone of mixing can change dramatically in a short period of time.  Similarly, if shallow water areas of the Niagara River are at different temperatures from the main channel, fluctuations in water level could lead to relatively rapid changes in water temperature at those shallow water locations.  In contrast to seasonal and diurnal temperature fluctuations, which are widespread, large rapid changes in water temperature due to mixing are limited to the area in which the mixing occurs.  It is not unusual for a tributary stream to be a different temperature than its associated larger river, and the mixing of tributary and river water at the mouth of a tributary is a natural occurrence.

The influence of natural factors as well as manmade factors on Niagara River water level fluctuations should be considered when examining the effect of U.S./Canadian power generation on water temperature conditions.  In general, water level fluctuations in the upper Niagara River are normally less than 1.5 feet per day (URS et al. 2005a).  However, most of the largest daily water level fluctuations observed upstream of the Chippawa-Grass Island Pool were caused by natural factors.  URS et al. (2005a) investigated the causes of large daily water level fluctuations along the Niagara River at eleven gauges.  Of the ten highest recorded fluctuations for each of the nine upper river gauges (Material Dock, Slater’s Point, NYPA Intake, LaSalle, Black Creek, Tonawanda Island, Huntley, Frenchman’s Creek, and Fort Erie), 84% were attributed to rapid flow surges at Fort Erie.  The remaining 16% of the large fluctuations, which were primarily for gauges in the Chippawa-Grass Island Pool (i.e., Material Dock, Slater’s Point, NYPA Intake, LaSalle) were conservatively attributed to regulation but may also be partially caused by localized environmental conditions such as wind and local runoff. 

In the lower Niagara River at the Ashland Avenue gauge (upstream of the RMNPP tailrace), water levels are typically affected most by the change in treaty flow requirements that occurs between the daytime (100,000 cfs) and nighttime (50,000 cfs) flows during the tourist season. Daily fluctuations normally range between 10 and 12 feet.  However nine of the ten largest daily water level fluctuations which were between 17 and 23 feet, were caused by high flow surges from Lake Erie (URS et al. 2005a). 

Water levels downstream of the RMNPP tailrace are a function of Lake Ontario level, discharge from RMNPP and Canadian plants, and flow rate over Niagara Falls.  In general, water levels downstream of the RMNPP tailrace fluctuate much less than the levels between the Falls and tailrace since the river is wider downstream of the tailrace, and is influenced by the water level of Lake Ontario.   In general, the change in the Falls flow and power generation produce relatively predictable daily water level fluctuations.  The average daily water level fluctuation during the 2002 tourist season at the gauge located 1.4 miles downstream of the RMNPP tailrace was approximately 1.5 feet with a range of 1.1 to 2.1 feet.

 

Table 1.1-1

Focus Fish Species

Common Name

Scientific Name

American eel

(Anguilla rostrata)

Bluntnose minnow

(Pimephales notatus)

Brown bullhead

(Ameiurus nebulosus)

Chinook salmon

(Oncorhynchus tshawytscha)

Emerald shiner

(Notropis atherinoides)

Greater redhorse

(Moxostoma valenciennesi)

Lake sturgeon

(Acipenser fulvescens)

Lake trout

(Salvelinus namaycush)

Largemouth bass

(Micropterus salmoides)

Muskellunge

(Esox masquinongy)

Northern pike

(Esox lucius)

Rainbow smelt

(Osmerus mordax)

Rainbow trout

(Oncorhynchus mykiss)

Rock bass

(Ambloplites rupestris)

Smallmouth bass

(Micropterus dolomieui)

Walleye

(Sander vitreus)

White sucker

(Catostomus commersoni)

Yellow perch

(Perca flavescens)

 

Figure 1.2-1

Investigation Area

[NIP – General Location Maps]

 

1.0     METHODS

This investigation examines the effect of water level fluctuations on water temperatures in the Niagara River by evaluating the effect of water level fluctuations on the hourly rate of change in water temperature and on seasonal and diurnal temperature fluctuations. 

A combination of methods was used to determine if changes in water level associated with joint U.S. and Canadian hydropower operations and treaty flow requirements led to changes in water temperature of sufficient magnitude to affect the behavior and survival of fish.  If temperature variations attributable to water level fluctuations were identified at a given location, the magnitude of these fluctuations were evaluated against tolerance thresholds for the life history stages of focus species likely to be present at the time the variations occur.  The likely presence of focus fish species was determined based on field surveys of habitat suitability and fish presence determined during various studies conducted as part of the Niagara Power Project FERC relicensing process (Stantec et al. 2005, Stantec et al. 2004URS et al. 2002, EI 2001 and 2002, KA 2002).

The remainder of this section is organized as follows:

·         Section 2.1:  Data collection methods

·         Section 2.2:  Analysis zones defined for the investigation

·         Section 2.3:  Data analysis methods

1.1         Water Level, Water Temperature, and Meteorological Data Collection

Temperature and water level data were collected for the purpose of this investigation in 2002 and 2003 from a number of temporary and existing permanent gauge stations in the investigation area.  A total of 39 temporary water temperature gauges were placed throughout the investigation area to collect water temperature data at 15-minute time increments between April 1st and November 30th of 2002, and March 1st to November 30th of 2003 (some locations began recording later in 2003).  A total of 24 temporary water level gauges were placed to collect water elevation data over the same time increments and periods.  The temporary water level gauges complemented data gathered from 10 existing permanent water level gauges present in the investigation area.  Some temporary water level gauges were also configured to gather temperature data, providing a total of 64 gauge locations with available temperature data for analysis.  Data from one of these gauge locations (TM-23) was later found to be unreliable and was removed from the analysis.  In addition to the water level and water temperature data, NOAA meteorological data collected from two nearby locations was used to describe other environmental conditions that affect water temperatures.  All data was subjected to rigorous QA/QC review to ensure the analysis was based on reliable and accurate information.  Water level, water temperature and air temperature data were compiled as hourly averages and plotted by month and location to establish the existing patterns of seasonal and diurnal (daily) temperature fluctuation throughout the investigation period.  The temperature and water level data set used in this investigation includes significant storm events that occurred in 2002 and 2003.

Water surface elevations were collected on a 15-minute time step at 24 temporary locations during 2003 using In-Situ miniTROLL, Professional Model (30 psi) gauges.  These gauges also recorded water temperature on the same time step.  Continuous water temperature data were collected from additional sites using Onset Computer Corporation’s Optic StowAway Temp gauges.  The continuous temperature data were collected using the In-Situ logger, the Onset logger, or both at a total of 39 locations in the Niagara River, Lewiston Reservoir and U.S. tributaries.  Performance specifications (range, resolution and accuracy) for the monitoring equipment used in this study, and data quality assurance and quality control procedures are described in Appendix A. 

Both water level and water temperature data were collected from the temporary data gauges in 2002 and 2003.  In 2002, these data were collected from the following locations (Figure 2.1-1) and time increments:

·         Water temperature collected at 15-minute increments from April to November 2002 at a total of 21 sites in the upper and lower Niagara River, Woods Creek, Buckhorn Marsh, Burnt Ship Creek, Big Sixmile Creek, Gun Creek, Spicer Creek, and around Strawberry Island;

·         Water level data collected at 15-minute intervals from March to November 2002 at a total of 10 temporary gauge locations in the upper and lower Niagara River, Woods Creek, Buckhorn Marsh, and Burnt Ship Creek;

·         Hourly water level data collected at a total of 8 permanent water level gauge locations in the upper and lower Niagara River and Lewiston Reservoir in 2002.

In 2003, water temperature data were collected from February or March to November from the following locations (Figure 2.1-2) and time increments with the number of sites in each area in parentheses:

·         Burnt Ship Creek (3), Buckhorn Marsh (2), Woods Creek (2), Gun Creek (2), Spicer Creek (2), Big Sixmile Creek (2), Tonawanda Creek (2), Ellicott Creek (2), Cayuga Creek (3), Gill Creek (2), Fish Creek (2), Lewiston Reservoir (1);

·         The mainstem of the upper Niagara River upstream of the mouth of Spicer Creek (1), downstream of the mouth of Woods Creek (1), just upstream of the intakes (1), and near Peace Bridge (1);

·         The mainstem of the lower Niagara River upstream of the tailrace (1), in the tailrace (1), just downstream of the tailrace (1), at the Lewiston Landing (1), Artpark (1), Joseph Davis State Park (1), and the Youngstown Yacht Club (1).

Water level data were collected hourly in 2003 from February or March to November in the following areas (Figure 2.1-2), with the number of sites in each area in parentheses:

·         Burnt Ship Creek (3), Buckhorn Marsh (2), Woods Creek (2), Gun Creek (2), Spicer Creek (2), Big Sixmile Creek (2), Tonawanda Creek (1), Ellicott Creek (2), Cayuga Creek (3);

·         The mainstem of the lower Niagara River upstream of the tailraces (1), at Artpark (1), at Lewiston Landing (1), at Joseph Davis State Park (1), and near the Youngstown Yacht Club (1).

For tributary sites, water level and water temperature data were collected within and upstream of the areas influenced by water level fluctuations in the Niagara River.  This provided a limited set of reference locations for tributary water temperatures.

Data from permanent water level gauges in the upper Niagara River and Lewiston Reservoir (Figure 2.1-1) were also collected in 2003 as in 2002.  Water level data from Lewiston Reservoir, Material Dock, Slater’s Point, NYPA Intake, Tonawanda Island, Huntley, Black Creek, Frenchman’s Creek, Fort Erie, and Port Weller (Lake Ontario) were used in this analysis.  Generally, temporary water level gauge data were plotted in relation to permanent gauge data in the upper Niagara River, Lake Ontario or Lewiston Reservoir, as appropriate. 

Hourly air temperature, relative humidity, barometric pressure, solar radiation, precipitation, and wind direction and speed data collected at two local, NOAA weather stations from March 2002 to November 2002 and from February 2003 to November 2003.  The exact weather stations from which data were obtained are shown in Figure 2.1-3.  These stations include the Niagara Falls International Airport and Buffalo Niagara International Airport.

Charts of water level, water temperature, and air temperature data were developed for grouped locations in support of this analysis.  The charts are presented in Appendix B of this report.  A table of contents provides a listing of the charts developed, including the specific location, and gauge data shown on each chart.

All temperature gauges are identified with a unique alpha numeric code.  Gauges collecting temperature data in 2002 begin with TM-, and are numbered 01 through 25 (e.g., TM-01)  Gauges specifically collecting temperature data in 2003 have location codes beginning with T and specific to the area being surveyed (e.g., TUNR-01: Upper Niagara River location-01).  Gauges collecting water level data in 2002 have two letter alpha numeric codes beginning with “S” (e.g., SD-01).  Gauges collecting water level data in 2003 have three letter location specific identifiers not beginning with T (e.g., SMC-01, Big Sixmile Creek location –01).  Note that these water level gauges also collected temperature data used in this investigation.  Gauge location and type descriptions are in Table 2.1.1.

Throughout this report, all environmental data (water elevations, water temperatures, air temperatures) are in Eastern Standard Time, whereas descriptions of, and references to, the 1950 Niagara River Water Diversion Treaty are in Eastern Daylight Savings Time. 

1.2         Analysis Zones

For the purpose of this analysis, the investigation area was divided into 6 distinct analysis zones.  These analysis zones were developed based on physical habitat characteristics, and the extent of influence by water level fluctuations.  The analysis zones are defined as follows:

1.       Analysis Zone 1:  Buckhorn Marsh and Niagara River Tributary Streams (see Figure 2.2-1)

2.       Analysis Zone 2:  Upper Niagara River – Main Channel (see Figure 2.2-2)

3.       Analysis Zone 3:  Upper Niagara River – Shallow Water Areas Off of Main Channel and Immediately Downstream of Tributaries (see Figure 2.2-3)

4.       Analysis Zone 4:  Lower Niagara River– Gorge Between Falls and Tailrace (see Figure 2.2-4)

5.       Analysis Zone 5:  Lower Niagara River– Below Tailrace (see Figure 2.2-5)

6.       Analysis Zone 6:  Lewiston Reservoir (see Figure 2.2-6)

1.3         Conceptual Approach to Data Analysis

The methods of data analysis used in this investigation were developed in part based on the findings of previous investigations of water level fluctuations in the Niagara River and its tributaries.  The methodology used to analyze temperature effects on focus species was conducted to answer the following questions:

1.   Are observed water temperature fluctuations in the investigation area within the range of natural seasonal and diurnal variability? 

2.       Do rapid changes in water temperature due to mixing of water bodies occur regularly?

3.       Do these rapid changes in water temperature potentially influence the behavior or survival of fish?

As implied, this evaluation involved three primary steps.  The first step was to determine if  water level fluctuations affect the normal range of seasonal and diurnal temperature fluctuations.  The second step was to determine if the timing of water level fluctuations appear to be correlated with the timing of water temperature changes at specific times and locations, with effects occurring in the form of rapid, temporary temperature fluctuations.  If such a relationship was identified, the third step was to determine if the extent of the identified temperature effect exceeds behavioral or survival thresholds for life history stages of focus species at the affected locations and times.  These three steps are described in the following sections.

1.3.1        Temperature Effects Analysis Methodology

Using the data collected as described in Section 2.1, the relationship between water level fluctuations and water temperature was examined, and the results were used to infer the effects of U.S./Canadian power generation on water temperatures.  This approach was sequential and used one or more of the following analytical methods:

First (visual assessment), graphs of the average hourly water levels, water temperatures, and air temperatures were created and a visual assessment of the graphs was used to examine the relationship between water level fluctuations and water temperatures and water temperature changes.  The visual assessment was used to determine the locations and times in which water temperatures appeared to be and appeared not to be affected by water level fluctuations.  Second, a correlation analysis (correlation analysis) was used to determine the relationships between water levels, water temperatures, and the meteorological factors described in Section 2.4 at those locations (and during those times) that water temperatures appeared to be and appeared not to be affected by water level fluctuations as identified during the visual assessment.  Third, the seasonal and diurnal patterns (seasonal and diurnal patterns) in the hourly change in water temperature in degrees Centigrade (positive or negative) (D°CWT) were studied at locations affected by water level fluctuations in the Niagara River in relation to reference locations (independent of water level fluctuations in the Niagara River).  This included a qualitative evaluation of seasonal and diurnal temperature fluctuation patterns between reference locations not affected by water level fluctuations, and locations that may be subject to water level fluctuations.  This consists of two components:  1) determination of normal patterns of seasonal and diurnal temperature fluctuation based on reference locations, and; 2) comparison of annual patterns D°CWT between reference and potentially affected locations.  An example graph of annual D°CWT at a reference location is shown in Figure 2.3.1-1.  Fourth, (frequency distribution of hourly D°CWT) the frequency distributions of D°CWT values by hour of day at locations that may be affected by water level fluctuations in the Niagara River were compared to those locations that may not be affected by water level fluctuations in the Niagara River.  Fifth, the frequency distributions of hourly change in water level (DWL) values in feet by hour of day (frequency distribution of hourly DWL) at locations that may be affected by water level fluctuations in the Niagara River were compared to those locations not affected by water level fluctuations in the Niagara River.

The fourth and fifth methods above rely on frequency distribution boxplots of D°CWT and DWL, respectively.  Frequency distributions used in this analysis show standard boxplots of hourly temperature change values over the period of analysis by hour of day.  An example standard boxplot is shown in Figure 2.3.1-2.  Each standard boxplot consists of a center line (the median, or 50th percentile) splitting a rectangle defining the 25th to 75th percentile of values.  In other words, 25 percent of the values in a given plot are above those represented by the range of the box, and 25 percent are below.  The whiskers extend to the last value within 1.5 times the height of the box (1.5 times the range of 25th to 75th percentile values), and equal approximately the range of the 1st to the 99th percentile of values.  Outlier values, represented by an ‘x’, occur less than one time in one hundred values in a normally distributed data set, and extreme values, which are not shown, occur so rarely that they are outside the predicted normal range of the population of values (Helsel and Hirsch 2002).  In contrast to the graphs of annual patterns in D°CWT, the frequency distribution boxplots do not show the most extreme values.   Extreme events are excluded from this analysis because they occur so rarely they are unlikely to be caused by human activities.  Water level fluctuations follow a generally consistent daily pattern.  The rarity of outlier and extreme events suggests they are unlikely to be caused by water level fluctuations due to U.S./Canadian power generation.  Outlier and extreme events occur at a comparable frequency to large natural changes in river elevation and are consistent with the likely degree of effect. (Causes of natural changes in river elevation are described in Section 1.3.) 

As mentioned, water level fluctuations in both the upper and lower Niagara River are caused by a number of factors. Natural factors include flow surges from Lake Erie, wind, ice conditions, and regional and long-term precipitation patterns that affect lake levels, while manmade factors include boat wakes, regulation of Niagara Falls flows for scenic purposes, operation of hydroelectric power plants on the Canadian side of the river, and operation of the Niagara Power Project.  The influence of these factors on water levels is interrelated and dynamic. Because the water level in the Niagara River at any location at any time is a complex function of natural and manmade factors, distinguishing the exact amount of water level fluctuation attributable to each factor is difficult.  Because rapid changes in water level at the Fort Erie gauge are due to environmental factors on Lake Erie (primarily wind events, see Section 1.3), the effects analysis attempted to distinguish between water temperature effects in the upper Niagara River caused by U.S./Canadian power generation from those caused by environmental factors on Lake Erie.  Therefore, the effects analysis was based on those hourly temperature change values that occurred between the 99th and 1st percentiles.  For the lower Niagara River, where water level fluctuations are less susceptible to environmental factors, the outlier values were included in the analysis.  This approach to determine the effects of U.S./Canadian power generation on water temperatures in the upper and lower Niagara River was considered conservative as it is not possible to separate all other factors that contribute to changes in water levels such as small wind effects, boat waves and local environmental conditions.  Throughout the remainder of this report, temperature effects in the upper Niagara River based on frequency distribution boxplots are presented as normal values (i.e., those that occur between the 99th and 1st percentiles) in ±ºC/hour, and outlier values (±ºC/hour) are presented only in the figures in Appendix C for illustrative purposes.  For the lower Niagara River, the analysis of temperature effects was based on both normal and outlier values in the frequency distribution boxplots.

Different combinations of these five methods were used to evaluate the effect of U.S./Canadian power generation in each analysis zone.  The analytical approach, rationale, and selection of analytical methods used in each analysis zone are described below.

1.3.1.1       Analysis Zone 1:  Buckhorn Marsh and Upper Niagara River Tributaries

Seasonal and diurnal patterns, frequency distribution of hourly D°CWT, and frequency distribution of hourly DWL were used to evaluate the relationship between water temperature and water level fluctuations in Analysis Zone 1.  This approach relies on locations in tributaries that are known to be independent of water level fluctuations in the upper Niagara River to provide reference patterns for normal temperature variation.

The following temperature gauge locations were used to identify reference patterns:

·         SMC-01 (Big Sixmile Creek), 2003 data

·         CC-03 (Cayuga Creek), 2003 data

These locations are upstream of the influence of Niagara River water levels (URS et al. 2005c).   There were daily water level fluctuations of small magnitude (~0.2 feet/day) observed at CC-03, however these fluctuations don’t show the same daily patterns as observed downstream (URS and Gomez and Sullivan 2005).  The fluctuations at CC-03 were likely the result of a SPDES permitted discharge upstream (Redland Quarry).  The Redland Quarry, an operating limestone mine in the Cayuga Creek watershed with a reported maximum depth of 140 feet below ground surface (approximately El. 484 feet).  It is located approximately 7,500 feet southeast of the Lewiston Reservoir.  Groundwater is extracted from sumps in the mine and discharged to a tributary of Cayuga Creek.  The extraction and discharge of groundwater at the mine is regulated by SPDES permit #NY0025267.  The mine is permitted to discharge a maximum of 432,000 gallons of water per day (300 gallons per minute or 0.67 cfs) to Cayuga Creek (URS et al. 2003).  Cayuga Creek has an estimated annual median flow of 10.7 cfs upstream of the Bergholtz Creek confluence (URS et al. 2005c).  Temperature data from these locations were used to establish reference patterns of seasonal and diurnal temperature variability, annual distribution of D°CWT values, and the frequency distribution of hourly D°CWT values.  Reference and non-reference gauge locations in Analysis Zone 1, and analytical methods used in this analysis are listed in Table 2.3.1.1-1.  The pattern and magnitude of daily water level fluctuations at GN-Tonawanda (in the Tonawanda Channel) are similar to those at GO-Black_Creek (in the Chippawa Channel).  For simplicity, the GN-Tonawanda data were used to examine the effect of water level fluctuations on water temperatures in Big Sixmile Creek because the GN-Tonawanda data were used in the analysis of other upper Niagara River tributaries. 

Collectively, the distinct patterns of diurnal temperature variation, annual patterns of D°CWT, the frequency distribution of hourly D°CWT, and the frequency distribution of hourly DWL are used to identify patterns of water temperature changes associated with water level fluctuations.  For the purpose of this investigation, locations with patterns of water temperature fluctuation that are routinely dissimilar from patterns present at reference areas (i.e., they have a high frequency of unusual hourly temperature change values) are considered to be affected by water level fluctuations. 

1.3.1.2       Analysis Zone 2:  Upper Niagara River – Main Channel

Seasonal and diurnal patterns and frequency distribution of hourly D°CWT were used to evaluate the relationship between water temperature and water level fluctuations in Analysis Zone 2, the main channel of the upper Niagara River.  The following gauge was identified as a reference location for Niagara River main channel temperature conditions:

·         TUNR-03, upper Niagara River at Squaw Island, 2003

This gauge is the furthest upstream on the Niagara River of all temperature sampling locations.  TUNR-03 was placed approximately 1.2 miles downstream of the Peace Bridge.  While this location may be influenced by water level fluctuations related to U.S./Canadian power generation at times, there is limited potential for temperature effects at this mainstem location for the following reasons:

·         TUNR-03 is located near the uppermost extent of the influence of power generation on Niagara River water levels (URS et al. 2005a)

·         Flow velocity in this section of the Niagara River exceeds 8 ft/second (Stantec et al. 2005, URS et al. 2005a), suggesting surface waters at this location are well mixed

·         The volume of flow at this location in a ‘typical’ year ranges from 160,000 to over 250,000 cfs (Stantec et al. 2005)

Based on these factors, temperature conditions at location TUNR-03 are determined predominantly by the temperature of surface waters flowing out of Lake Erie and are considered to be independent of water level fluctuations in the Niagara River.  Reference and non-reference locations in analysis Zone 2, and analytical methods used in this analysis are listed in Table 2.3.1.2-1.

1.3.1.3       Analysis Zone 3:  Upper Niagara River - Shallow Water Areas off of Main Channel and Immediately Downstream of Tributaries

Seasonal and diurnal patterns and frequency distribution of hourly D°CWT were used to evaluate the relationship between water temperature and water level fluctuations in Analysis Zone 3, the shallow water areas of the upper Niagara River and immediately downstream of tributaries draining to the river. Temperature patterns at location TUNR-03 are used as reference patterns for Analysis Zone 3, with the caveat that this may lead to overestimation of temperature effects at these locations.  Temperature effects may be overestimated because these shallow water areas may have different conditions than the main river channel reference gauge.  Reference and non-reference gauge locations in Analysis Zone 3, and analytical methods used in this analysis are listed in Table 2.3.1.3-1.

1.3.1.4       Analysis Zone 4:  Lower Niagara River– Gorge Between Falls and Tailrace

Seasonal and diurnal patterns, frequency distribution of hourly D°CWT, and frequency distribution of hourly DWL were used to evaluate the relationship between water temperature and water level fluctuations in Analysis Zone 4, the lower Niagara River between the falls and the RMNPP tailrace.  There is no ideal reference location for this analysis zone, therefore, temperature conditions are compared to those in the upper river above the falls to determine if  temperature effects are occurring.  Reference and non-reference gauge locations in Analysis Zone 4, and analytical methods used in this analysis are listed in Table 2.3.1.4-1.  The extent of available temperature data in this analysis zone is limited.  Therefore, the strength of conclusions based on the lines of evidence applied is relatively weak in comparison to Analysis Zones 2 and 3.

1.3.1.5       Analysis Zone 5:  Lower Niagara River– Below Tailrace

Seasonal and diurnal patterns, frequency distribution of hourly D°CWT, and frequency distribution of hourly DWL were used to evaluate the relationship between water temperature and water level fluctuations in Analysis Zone 5, the lower Niagara River below the tailrace.  In addition, water temperatures above and at the tailrace were qualitatively compared with Lewiston Reservoir temperatures.  Temperature conditions in this section of the lower river are compared to those in the upper Niagara River above the falls to determine if temperature effects due to water level fluctuations may be occurring.  Reference and non-reference gauge locations in this analysis zone, and analytical methods used in this analysis are listed in Table 2.3.1.5-1.

1.3.1.6       Analysis Zone 6:  Lewiston Reservoir

Seasonal and diurnal patterns and frequency distribution of hourly D°CWT were used to evaluate the relationship between water temperature and water level fluctuations in Analysis Zone 6, Lewiston Reservoir.  The reservoir is subject to regular large changes in water level due to project operations.  Temperature conditions in the Lewiston Reservoir are compared to those in its source body, the upper Niagara River.  Gauge locations evaluated in Analysis Zone 6 are listed in Table 2.3.1.6.-1.

1.3.2        Focus Species Occurrence by Analysis Zone

The focus species identified in Section 1.1 are not uniformly distributed in the Niagara River and its tributaries, and several species are limited to specific areas within the investigation area.  To aid in identifying potential behavior and survival effects, the distribution of focus species within the previously defined analysis zones was identified based on presence/absence and creel surveys conducted as part of the Niagara Project FERC relicensing process (Stantec et al. 2005, URS et al. 2002, EI 2001 and 2002, KA 2002).  Species documented in an analysis zone where suitable spawning habitat does not occur, spawning has not been documented, or juveniles and adults have not been documented at appropriate times of year to be indicative in spawning activity are marked with an asterisk *.  Focus species are distributed by Analysis Zone as follows:

Analysis Zone 1:  Buckhorn Marsh and Niagara River Tributaries

·         Bluntnose minnow (Pimephales notatus)

·         Brown bullhead (Ameiurus nebulosus)

·         Emerald shiner (Notropis atherinoides)

·         Greater redhorse (Moxostoma valenciennesi)*

·         Largemouth bass (Micropterus salmoides)

·         Northern pike (Esox lucius)

·         Rock bass (Ambloplites rupestris)

·         Smallmouth bass (Micropterus dolomieui)

·         White sucker (Catostomus commersoni)

·         Yellow perch (Perca flavescens)

Analysis Zone 2: Upper Niagara River - Main Channel

·         Bluntnose minnow

·         Brown bullhead

·         Emerald shiner

·         Greater redhorse

·         Lake sturgeon (Acipenser fulvescens)

·         Lake trout (Salvelinus namaycush)

·         Largemouth bass

·         Muskellunge (Esox masquinongy)

·         Northern pike

·         Rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss)

·         Rainbow smelt (Osmerus mordax)

·         Rock bass

·         Smallmouth bass

·         Walleye (Sander vitreus)

·         White sucker

·         Yellow perch

Analysis Zone 3:  Upper Niagara River - Shallow Water Areas Off of Main Channel and Immediately downstream of Tributaries

·         Bluntnose minnow

·         Brown bullhead

·         Emerald shiner

·         Greater redhorse*

·         Largemouth bass

·         Muskellunge

·         Northern pike

·         Rainbow smelt

·         Rock bass

·         Smallmouth bass

·         White sucker

·         Yellow perch

Analysis Zones 4 and 5:  Lower Niagara River

·         American eel (Anguilla rostrata)*

·         Bluntnose minnow

·         Brown bullhead*

·         Chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha)

·         Emerald shiner

·         Greater redhorse

·         Lake sturgeon

·         Lake trout

·         Largemouth bass

·         Muskellunge

·         Northern pike

·         Rainbow smelt

·         Rainbow trout

·         Rock bass

·         Smallmouth bass

·         Walleye

·         White sucker

·         Yellow perch

Analysis Zone 6: Lewiston Reservoir

·         Emerald shiner

·         Northern pike

·         Rock bass

·         Smallmouth bass

·         White sucker

·         Yellow perch

1.4         Assessment of Potential Behavioral and Survival Effects on Focus Fish Species

The distribution information in Section 2.3.2 identifies the focus species likely to occur in each analysis zone.  To determine if a temperature fluctuation at a given location is of sufficient magnitude to cause potential behavioral or survival effects, the magnitude of the temperature fluctuation was compared to literature derived temperature tolerance thresholds for life history stages likely to be present at the time the fluctuations occurred.  Four categories of temperature tolerance thresholds are examined for each focus species at four different life history stages:

·         Egg/embryo:  Cold shock and heat shock

·         Larvae/fry:  Cold shock, heat shock; lower avoidance, upper avoidance

·         Juvenile:  Cold shock, heat shock; lower avoidance, upper avoidance

·         Adult:  Cold shock, heat shock; lower avoidance, upper avoidance

Cold shock and heat shock are survival effects.  They  refer to positive and negative changes in water temperature sufficient to cause direct mortality, or incapacitation sufficient to greatly increase the likelihood of mortality (i.e., inability to avoid predators, or to avoid being carried into unfavorable habitats).  Lower avoidance and upper avoidance describe behavioral tolerance thresholds referring to temperature effects that cause sufficient discomfort to fish such that they avoid the affected area.  While avoidance behavior does not cause direct mortality, it can indirectly affect survival.  For example, adult fish may abandon nests, leading to loss of egg clutches; some species may delay spawning; or adult and juvenile fish may abandon otherwise suitable habitats and be forced to expend energy competing for new cover, resting and feeding areas.  Collectively, these effects can lead to a survival disadvantage (Schneider et al. 2002, Hokanson 1977, McCullough 1999, Wydowski and Whitney 2003, Hubbs and Bailey 1938, Summerfelt 1975, Becker 1983, Coble 1975).  Minor rapid temperature fluctuations (i.e., below defined tolerance thresholds) may also cause physiological and behavioral stress on focus species, but the extent of these effects are not well documented.  Because water level related fluctuations in water temperature tend to occur daily, nest building species may avoid building nests in areas affected by water temperature fluctuations.

Temperature tolerance thresholds for each focus species and life history stage are presented in Tables 2.4-1 through 2.4-4.  These thresholds are derived from available literature as cited.  For the purpose of this analysis, the following effects thresholds are defined:

·         No identified behavioral or survival effects: water level related temperature fluctuations may or may not occur, if they do occur they do not exceed behavioral or survival  tolerance thresholds for any focus species in the analysis zone.

·          Potential behavioral effect: Water level related temperature fluctuations  occur, and they exceed lower or upper avoidance thresholds at greater than 1 per 100 event frequency during non-spawning and rearing periods.

·         Potential survival effect: Water level related temperature fluctuations occur, and they exceed cold shock or heat shock thresholds at the outlier level of frequency (i.e., below the 1st  or above 99th percentile of values).

·         Likely survival effect: Water level related temperature fluctuations occur, and they exceed cold shock or heat shock thresholds at greater than 1 per 100 event frequency during any period.

The exceedence frequency referred to in these effects criteria is considered to be greater than 1 per 100 events if the ‘whiskers’ of the standard boxplots of D°CWT values exceed any temperature tolerance threshold for any species in the analysis zone.  Outlier values, represented by an ‘x’ on the boxplots, occur less than 1 in 100 times in a normally distributed population of events (Helsel and Hirsch 2002).

 

Table 2.1-1

General Location of Temporary Water Level and Water Temperature Gauges in the Investigation Area, 2002 and 2003

Analysis Zone

Gauge Location ID

Year

Description of Location

1

TBSC-01

2003

Burnt Ship Creek, approximately 50 feet from mouth.

TBSC-02

2003

Burnt Ship Creek, approximately 150 feet from mouth.

TBSC-03

2003

Burnt Ship Creek, immediately below west weir.

TM-12

2002

Buckhorn Marsh, above (west of) east weir.

TBHM-01

2003

Buckhorn Marsh, above (east of) west weir.

TBHM-02

2002/2003

Buckhorn Marsh, above (west of) east weir.

TWC-01

2003

Woods Creek, approximately 150 feet upstream from mouth.

TM-01

2002

Woods Creek, approximately 200 feet upstream from mouth.

TM-02

2002

Woods Creek, upstream of East River Road bridge.

 

Table 2.1-1 (CONT.)

General Location of Temporary Water Level and Water Temperature Gauges in the Investigation Area, 2002 and 2003

Analysis Zone

Gauge Location ID

Year

Description of Location

1

TM-04

2002

Woods Creek, upstream of Baseline Road bridge.

TWC-02

2003

Woods Creek, Proximal to 2002 gauge TM-04, at the upstream extent of the influence of Niagara River water levels.

TM-03

2002

Mouth of Gun Creek.

TGC-01

2003

Mouth of Gun Creek.

TM-05

2002

Gun Creek, approximately 1000 feet upstream of TM-03.

GC-02A

2003

Gun Creek, approximately 6,000 feet upstream of mouth.

TM-06

2002

Spicer Creek, at mouth.

TM-07

2002

Spicer Creek, approximately 1,500 feet upstream of mouth.

TM-08

2002

Spicer Creek, within the range of the influence of Niagara River water levels, approximately 3,600 feet upstream of mouth.

 

Table 2.1-1 (CONT.)

General Location of Temporary Water Level and Water Temperature Gauges in the Investigation Area, 2002 and 2003

Analysis Zone

Gauge Location ID

Year

Description of Location

1

TSC-01

2003

Spicer Creek, approximately 600 feet upstream of mouth.

TSC-02

2003

Spicer Creek, approximately 1,200 feet upstream of mouth.

TM-19

2002

Mouth of Big Sixmile Creek.

TM-10

2002

Big Sixmile Creek, at upstream end of harbor (1,800 feet upstream from mouth).

SMC-02

2003

Big Sixmile Creek, at mouth, upstream edge of West River Road bridge.

TSMC-01

2003

Big Sixmile Creek, proximal to 2002 location TM-10.

SMC-01

2003

Big Sixmile Creek, approximately 1,900 feet upstream from mouth.

CC-01

2003

Cayuga Creek, at confluence with Little River.

CC-02

2003

Cayuga Creek, at confluence with Bergholtz Creek.

 

Table 2.1-1 (CONT.)

General Location of Temporary Water Level and Water Temperature Gauges in the Investigation Area, 2002 and 2003

Analysis Zone

Gauge Location ID

Year

Description of Location

1

CC-03

2003

Cayuga Creek, at Southwestern edge of NFIA.

TTC-01

2003

Tonawanda Creek, approximately 1,500 feet upstream of mouth.

EC-01

2003

Ellicott Creek, approximately 1,200 feet upstream of mouth.

EC-02

2003

Ellicott Creek, at Penarrow Drive Bridge.

EC-03

2003

Ellicott Creek, at Highway 62 Bridge.

TC-01

2003

Tonawanda Creek, approximately 1,200 feet upstream of East Robinson Road Bridge.

TFC-01

2003

Fish Creek, upstream of Garlow Road Bridge.

TFC-02

2003

Fish Creek, upstream of Moyer Road Bridge.

TGLC-01

2003

Gill Creek, immediately downstream of flow augmentation discharge.

 

Table 2.1-1 (CONT.)

General Location of Temporary Water Level and Water Temperature Gauges in the Investigation Area, 2002 and 2003

Analysis Zone

Gauge Location ID

Year

Description of Location

1

TGLC-02

2003

Gill Creek, immediately upstream of flow augmentation discharge.

TGLC-03

2003

Gill Creek, upstream of Garlow Road Bridge.

2

TM-17

2002

Niagara River, 100 feet upstream of Woods Creek.

TUNR-01

2003

Niagara River, immediately upstream of Spicer Creek.

TUNR-02

2003

Niagara River, 1,200 feet upstream of intakes.

2

TUNR-03

2003

Niagara River, Squaw Island at Railroad Bridge.

3

TM-11

2002

Upper Niagara River, mouth of Burnt Ship Creek.

TM-13

2002

Upper Niagara River, Beaver Island Slough.

TM-15

2002

Upper Niagara, Strawberry Island shallows (in the Tonawanda Channel between Strawberry and Motor Islands).

 

Table 2.1-1 (CONT.)

General Location of Temporary Water Level and Water Temperature Gauges in the Investigation Area, 2002 and 2003

Analysis Zone

Gauge Location ID

Year

Description of Location

3

TM-16

2002

Upper Niagara, Northwest tip of Strawberry Island in shallow water area.

TM-18

2002

Upper Niagara River, in shallow water bay in Grass Island (Chippawa-Grass Island Pool).

TM-20

2002

Upper Niagara, shallow water embayment on the north side of Strawberry Island.

TUNR-04

2003

Upper Niagara River, approximately 50 feet downstream of Woods Creek.

4

TLNR-03

2003

Lower Niagara River, approximately 2,300 feet upstream of the tailrace.

4

LNR-01

2003

Lower Niagara River, approximately 1,700 feet upstream of RMNPP tailrace, downstream of location TLNR-03.

5

TLNR-01

2003

Lower Niagara River, at upstream end of RMNPP tailrace, on the south side near the fishing pier.

TLNR-04

2003

Lower Niagara River, downstream of TLNR-01, on the north side tailrace.

 

Table 2.1-1 (CONT.)

General Location of Temporary Water Level and Water Temperature Gauges in the Investigation Area, 2002 and 2003

Analysis Zone

Gauge Location ID

Year

Description of Location

5

TLNR-05

2003

Lower Niagara River, downstream of TLNR-01, within the middle of RMNPP tailrace.

TLNR-02

2003

Lower Niagara River, downstream end  of the Adam Beck tailrace on the U.S. side of the river.  

LNR-02

2003

Lower Niagara River, approximately 4,500 feet downstream of RMNPP tailrace.

TM-24

2002

Lower Niagara River, downstream at gorge mouth at edge of Niagara escarpment (Queenston Drift).

LNR-03

2003

Lower Niagara River, downstream at gorge mouth, approximately 2 miles downstream of the RMNPP tailrace (at Onondaga St.).

LNR-04

2003

Lower Niagara River, downstream of gorge (Joseph Davis State Park).

LNR-05

2003

Lower Niagara River, downstream of gorge, one mile upstream of the river mouth at Water Street.

TM-25

2002

Lower Niagara River, mouth of the Niagara River at Lake Ontario.

6

TLEW-01

2003

Lewiston Reservoir outlet, at the Lewiston Pump Generating Station.

 

Table 2.3.1.1-1

Temperature and Water Level Gauge Locations in Analysis Zone 1

Analytical Methods

Year

Temperature Gauge Locations

Water Level Gauge Locations

1, 2

2002

TM-01, TM-02, TM-03, TM-04, TM-05, TM-06, TM-07, TM-08, TM-10, TM-12, TM-19

SD-01,  SD-02, SD-03, SD-04, SD-05

1, 2, 3

2003

TWC-01, TWC-02, WC-02, TBHM-01, TBHM-02, TBSC-01, TBSC-02, TBSC-03, TGC-01, CC-01, CC-02, CC-03, GC-02A, TSC-01, TSC-02, SMC-01, SMC-02, TTC-01, EC-01, EC-02, EC-03, TC-01

WC-01, WC-02, BSC-01, BSC-02, BSC-03, BHM-01, BHM-02, CC-01, CC-02, CC-03, GC-01, GC-02A, SMC-01, SMC-02, GN-Tonawanda

Notes:   Gauge locations highlighted in bold are reference locations.

Analytical Methods:

1.       Identification of patterns in D°CWT at locations affected by water level fluctuations in the Niagara River in relation to reference locations (independent of water level fluctuations in the Niagara River)

2.       Frequency distributions of D°CWT values by hour of day at locations that are affected by and not affected by water level fluctuations in the Niagara River

3.       Frequency distributions of DWL values by hour of day at locations that are affected by and not affected by water level fluctuations in the Niagara River

 

Table 2.3.1.2-1

Temperature and Water Level Gauge Locations in Analysis Zone 2

Analytical Methods

Year

Temperature Gauge Locations

Water Level Gauge Locations

1

2002

TM-17

GN-River_Int

1, 2, 3

2003

TUNR-01, TUNR-02, TUNR-03

GN-River_Int,

GN-Tonawanda

Notes:   Gauge locations highlighted in bold are reference locations.

Analytical Methods:

1.       Identification of patterns in D°CWT at locations affected by water level fluctuations in the Niagara River in relation to reference locations (independent of water level fluctuations in the Niagara River)

2.       Frequency distributions of D°CWT values by hour of day at locations that are affected by and not affected by water level fluctuations in the Niagara River

3.       Frequency distributions of DWL values by hour of day at locations that are affected by and not affected by water level fluctuations in the Niagara River

 

Table 2.3.1.3-1

Temperature and Water Level Gauge Locations in Analysis Zone 3

Analytical Methods

Year

Temperature Gauge Locations

Water Level Gauge Locations

1, 2

2002

TM-11, TM-13, TM-15, TM-16, TM-18, TM-20

SD-06, GN-River_Int

1, 2, 3

2003

TUNR-04

GN-Tonawanda

Notes:   Gauge locations highlighted in bold are reference locations.

Analytical Methods:

1.       Identification of patterns in D°CWT at locations affected by water level fluctuations in the Niagara River in relation to reference locations (independent of water level fluctuations in the Niagara River)

2.       Frequency distributions of D°CWT values by hour of day at locations that are affected by and not affected by water level fluctuations in the Niagara River

3.       Frequency distributions of DWL values by hour of day at locations that are affected by and not affected by water level fluctuations in the Niagara River

 

Table 2.3.1.4-1

Temperature and Water Level Gauge Locations in Analysis Zone 4

Analytical Methods

Year

Temperature Gauge Locations

Water Level Gauge Locations

1, 2, 3

2003

TLNR-03, LNR-01, TUNR-02

LNR-01

Notes:   Gauge locations highlighted in bold are reference locations.

Analytical Methods:

1.       Identification of patterns in D°CWT at locations affected by water level fluctuations in the Niagara River in relation to reference locations (independent of water level fluctuations in the Niagara River)

2.       Frequency distributions of D°CWT values by hour of day at locations that are affected by and not affected by water level fluctuations in the Niagara River

3.       Frequency distributions of DWL values by hour of day at locations that are affected by and not affected by water level fluctuations in the Niagara River

 

Table 2.3.1.5-1

Temperature and Water Level Gauge Locations in Analysis Zone 5

Analytical Methods

Year

Temperature Gauge Locations

Water Level Gauge Locations

1, 2

2002

TM-24, TM-25

SG-01A, SG-01B, SG-01C, SG-02A, SG-03A, SG-04A

1, 2, 3

2003

TLNR-01, TLNR-02, TLNR-04, TLNR-05, LNR-02, LNR-03, LNR-04, LNR-05, TUNR-02

LNR-02, LNR-03, LNR-04, LNR-05

Notes:   Gauge locations highlighted in bold are reference locations.

Analytical Methods:

1.       Identification of patterns in D°CWT at locations affected by water level fluctuations in the Niagara River in relation to reference locations (independent of water level fluctuations in the Niagara River)

2.       Frequency distributions of D°CWT values by hour of day at locations that are affected by and not affected by water level fluctuations in the Niagara River

3.       Frequency distributions of DWL values by hour of day at locations that are affected by and not affected by water level fluctuations in the Niagara River

 

Table 2.3.1.6-1

Temperature and Water Level Gauge Locations in Analysis Zone 6

Analytical Methods

Year

Temperature Gauge Locations

Water Level Gauge Locations

1, 2

2003

TLEW-01, TUNR-02

GN-Reservoir

Notes:   Gauge locations highlighted in bold are reference locations.

Analytical Methods:

1.       Identification of patterns in D°CWT at locations affected by water level fluctuations in the Niagara River in relation to reference locations (independent of water level fluctuations in the Niagara River)

2.       Frequency distributions of D°CWT values by hour of day at locations that are affected by and not affected by water level fluctuations in the Niagara River

 

Table 2.4-1

Focus Species Temperature Effects Thresholds

Species

Delta Threshold C1,2 

Data Source

Cold Shock3

Heat Shock4

Lower Avoidance5

Upper Avoidance6

Chinook Salmon

Eggs (Embryos)

-6@7 to -15@20

-

-

Wismer and Christie 1987

Fry (Larvae)

-9.2@10 to -16.6@24

16.5@5 to 1.1@24

<4 (enter gravel)

 

Wismer and Christie 1987, Raleigh et al. 1986

Juveniles

 -

5@17

<4 (enter gravel)

>19.5-22.8

Wismer and Christie 1987, Raleigh et al. 1986

Adults

-

4@18

<3

>21

Wismer and Christie 1987, McCullough 1999

Rainbow Trout 

Eggs (Embryos)

 -

Fry (Larvae)

 -

Juveniles

9.5@10, 16.7@20

18.7@5 to 1.7@24.5

-6@12 to -9@24

6@12 to 2@24

Wismer and Christie 1987, McCullough 1999

Adults

  -

5@16 to 3@19

 -

  -

Wismer and Christie 1987

Lake Trout

Eggs (Embryos)

-

6@8.8

  -

 - 

McCullough 1999

Fry (Larvae)

-

 

-

-

McCullough 1999

Juveniles

-

8.5@15 to 3.5@20

<1 to <5.6

>11.7 to >18.2

Wismer and Christie 1987

 

Table 2.4-1 (CONT.)

Focus Species Temperature Effects thresholds

Species

Delta Threshold C1,2 

Data Source

Cold Shock3

Heat Shock4

Lower Avoidance5

Upper Avoidance6

Adults

-

 4.5@20

4

14

Wismer and Christies 1987, McCullough 1999

Rainbow Smelt

Eggs (Embryos)

-

-

-

-

-

Fry (Larvae)

-

-

-

-

-

Juveniles

-

-

-

-

-

Adults

-8.5@17

11.3@10.2 to 13.5@15

-

Increase of 10

Wismer and Christie 1987

Northern Pike

Eggs (Embryos)

-10

14.5@6.2 to 12.3@11.8

-

-

Wismer and Christie 1987, Hassler 1970

Fry (Larvae)

-15@18

18.5@16

-

-

Wismer and Christie 1987

Juveniles

 

3.25@30, 7.25@25

-

-

Wismer and Christie 1987

Adults

-16.9@21.8

3@30, 7@25

decrease of 11

-

Wismer and Christie 1987, Inskip 1982, Strand 1986

Muskellunge

Eggs (Embryos)

-

-

-

-

-

Fry (Larvae)

-

-

-

-

-

Juveniles

 

7.25@25, 3.25@30

 

 

Wismer and Christie 1987

 

Table 2.4-1 (CONT.)

Focus Species Temperature Effects Thresholds

Species

Delta Threshold C1,2 

Data Source

Cold Shock3

Heat Shock4

Lower Avoidance5

Upper Avoidance6

Adults

-

-

-

-

Strand 1986

Emerald Shiner

Eggs (Embryos)

-12.5

-

-

-

Wismer and Christie 1987

Fry (Larvae)

-13.4@15, -17@25

5.7@25, 18.3@5

-

-

Wismer and Christie 1987

Juveniles

-

12,6@20-25

-

-

Wismer and Christie 1987

Adults

-

-

-14@20

22@20

Wismer and Christie 1987

Bluntnose Minnow

Eggs (Embryos)

-

-

-

-

-

Fry (Larvae)

-14@15, -17.5@25

19@5, 8.3@25

 

 

Carlander 1969

Juveniles

-

-

-

-

-

Adults

-14@15, -17.5@25

19@5, 8.3@25

-6@30, -3@12

9@12, 3@30

Wismer and Christie 1987

Brown Bullhead

Eggs (Embryos)

-

-

-

-

-

Fry (Larvae)

-

13.2@25

-

-

Wismer and Christie 1987

Juveniles

-

11.9@24

-3.5@3.5, -6@28

11.1@25, 16.5@35

Wismer and Christie 1987

Adults

-33@20, -30.5@36

24.9@5, 13.4@20, 1@40

-

-

Wismer and Christie 1987

 

Table 2.4-1 (CONT.)

Focus Species Temperature Effects Thresholds

Species

Delta Threshold C1,2 

Data Source

Cold Shock3

Heat Shock4

Lower Avoidance5

Upper Avoidance6

American Eel

Eggs (Embryos)

-

-

-

-

-

Fry (Larvae)

-

-

-

-

-

Juveniles

-

-

-

-

-

Adults

-

-

Decrease of 11.9

33

Wismer and Christie 1987

Rock Bass

Eggs (Embryos)

-

-

-

-

-

Fry (Larvae)

-

-

-

-

-

Juveniles

-

13.6@23.9, 18@18

-3@18, -6@33

9@18, 2@35

Wismer and Christie 1987

Adults

-

5@30

-

-

Wismer and Christie 1987

Smallmouth Bass

Eggs (Embryos)

-

12.8@20

-

-

Coble 1975

Fry (Larvae)

-

15@20

-

-

Coble 1975

Juveniles

-13@15, -16@26

19.4@12.8, 2@35

-3@18, -6@33

9@18, 2@33

Wismer and Christie 1987

Adults

-20

2@35

10, Decrease of 11.1

 

Wismer and Christie 1987, Becker 1983, Coble 1975

 

Table 2.4-1 (CONT.)

Focus Species Temperature Effects Thresholds

Species

Delta Threshold C1,2 

Data Source

Cold Shock3

Heat Shock4

Lower Avoidance5

Upper Avoidance6

Largemouth Bass

Eggs (Embryos)

-

-

-

-

-

Fry (Larvae)

-

-

-

-

-

Juveniles

-15@20, -19@30

13@20, 5@35

-

-

Wismer and Christie 1987

Adults

-14.5@20, -18.2@30

12.5@20, 6.4@30

-3@12, -3@24, -10

12@12, 11@24

Wismer and Christie 1987, Summerfelt 1975

Yellow Perch

Eggs (Embryos)

-4.4

17

-

-

Wismer and Christie 1987, Becker 1983

Fry (Larvae)

-

16.4@7.6, 10.8@15.8

-

-

Wismer and Christie 1987

Juveniles

-

-

-3@15, -6@24

5@24, 6@15

Wismer and Christie 1987

Adults

-9.9@11, -21.3@25

16@5, 7.3@25

-

-

Wismer and Christie 1987

Walleye

Eggs (Embryos)

-8.8@11

20.2@11

-

-

Schneider et al. 2002

Fry (Larvae)

-

-

-

-

-

Juveniles

 

5.8@25.8, 19@8

-

-

Wismer and Christie 1987

Adults

-17@25

21.7@7.2

-

-

Wismer and Christie 1987, Spotila et al. 1979

 

Table 2.4-1 (CONT.)

Focus Species Temperature Effects Thresholds

Species

Delta Threshold C1,2 

Data Source

Cold Shock3

Heat Shock4

Lower Avoidance5

Upper Avoidance6

Greater Redhorse

Eggs (Embryos)

-

-

-

-

-

Fry (Larvae)

-

-

-

-

-

Juveniles

-

-

-

-

-

Adults

-

-

-

-

-

White Sucker

Eggs (Embryos)

-18.3@21.2

10.4@21.1, 20.1@8.9

-

-

McCormick et al. 1977

Fry (Larvae)

-10.4@15.2, -15@21

18@10, 9@21

-

-

Wismer and Christie 1987

Juveniles

-18@20, -19@25

19@5, 4@25

-

-

Wismer and Christie 1987

Adults

-

-

-

12.2@17.2

Wismer and Christie 1987

Lake Sturgeon

Eggs (Embryos)

>4@14

-

-

-

Wang et al. 1985

Fry (Larvae)

-

-

-

-

-

Juveniles

-

-

-

-

-

Adults

-

-

-1.5 to -3@10-14

-

Kempinger 1988

Notes:

1Acclimation Temperature: Temperature that organism (embryo, larvae, juvenile, or adult) is acclimated to (acclimation temperatures, if available, are preceded by the @ symbol).

2Delta Threshold: Change in temperature that produces either avoidance behavior or 50% mortality

3Cold Shock: Rapid decrease in temperature documented to cause 50% mortality.  Values are given as the negative change of temperature in ºC the fish or embryos were suddenly subjected to (first value) and the acclimation temperature in ºC (example: -10@18).  Values for the highest and lowest acclimation temperatures tested are usually given.

4Heat Shock: Rapid increase in temperature documented to cause 50% mortality.  Values are given as the positive change of temperature in ºC the fish or embryos were suddenly subjected to (first value) and the acclimation temperature in ºC (example: 10@18).  Values for the highest and lowest acclimation temperatures tested are usually given.

5Lower Avoidance: Rapid decrease in temperature documented to cause avoidance behavior. A single number indicates that lifestage has been documented to avoid water of that absolute temperature.

6Upper Avoidance: Rapid increase in temperature documented to cause avoidance behavior. A single number indicates that lifestage has been documented to avoid water of that absolute temperature.

‘ – ‘ indicates no data are available for this parameter.

 

Table 2.4-2

Focus Species Lethal Temperature Thresholds

Species

Lower Incipient Lethal Temperature1,2

Upper Incipient Lethal Temperature1,3

Critical Thermal Maximum1,4

Data Source

Chinook Salmon

Eggs & Spawning Adults

2.5-3

16

 

McCullough 1999

Fry (Larvae)

0.8@10 to 7.4@24

21.5@5 to 25.1@24

25.1

Wismer and Christie 1987

Juveniles

0.8

22@17, 25.1@20-24

22.8

Wismer and Christie 1987, McCullough 1999, Bjorn and Reiser 1991

Adults

4@18

21-22@19

Wismer and Christie 1987, McCullough 1999

Rainbow Trout 

Eggs & Spawning Adults

3

18.5

McCullough 1999

Fry (Larvae)

Juveniles

0.5@10, 3.3@20

23.7@5, 26.2@24.5

23.9

Wismer and Christie 1987, McCullough 1999, Barnhart 1986

Adults

0

21@16, 22@19

26.3@17

Wismer and Christie 1987, Raleigh et al. 1984, McCullough 1999

Lake Trout

Eggs & Spawning Adults

14.8@8.8

McCullough 1999

Fry (Larvae)

Juveniles

23.5@15-20

McCullough 1999

 

Table 2.4-2 (CONT.)

Focus Species Lethal Temperature Thresholds

Species

Lower Incipient Lethal Temperature1,2

Upper Incipient Lethal Temperature1,3

Critical Thermal Maximum1,4

Data Source

Adults

24.5@20

25.9@17

McCullough 1999

Rainbow Smelt

Eggs & Spawning Adults

Fry (Larvae)

Juveniles

Adults

8.5@17

21.5@10.2, 28.5@15

22.6@1, 26.4@12.2

Wismer and Christie 1987

Northern Pike

Eggs & Spawning Adults

4.9@21.8

24.1@11.8, 20.6@6.1

Wismer and Christie 1987

Fry (Larvae)

3@18

34.5@16

Wismer and Christie 1987

Juveniles

33.25@30, 32.25@25

30.8-33.25

Wismer and Christie 1987

Adults

4.9@21.8

33@30, 32@25

Wismer and Christie 1987, Inskip 1982

Muskellunge

Eggs & Spawning Adults

Wismer and Christie 1987, Harrison 1978

Fry (Larvae)

28.8@7, 34.5@25

Wismer and Christie 1987

Juveniles

24-26.6

Wismer and Christie 1987

Adults

32.2

Becker 1983

 

Table 2.4-2 (CONT.)

Focus Species Lethal Temperature Thresholds

Species

Lower Incipient Lethal Temperature1,2

Upper Incipient Lethal Temperature1,3

Critical Thermal Maximum1,4

Data Source

Emerald Shiner

Eggs & Spawning Adults

Wismer and Christie 1987, Goodyear et al. 1982

Fry (Larvae)

1.6@15, 8@25

23.3@5, 30.7@25

34.3

Wismer and Christie 1987

Juveniles

32.6@20-25

34

Wismer and Christie 1987

Adults

37.6

Ross et al. 2001

Bluntnose Minnow

Eggs & Spawning Adults

Fry (Larvae)

1@15, 7.5@25

26@5, 33.3@25

 

Carlander 1969

Juveniles

Adults

1@15, 7.5@25

26@5, 33.3@25

38

Wismer and Christie 1987, Becker 1983

Brown Bullhead

Eggs & Spawning Adults

Fry (Larvae)

38.2@25

Wismer and Christie 1987

Juveniles

35.9@24

Wismer and Christie 1987

Adults

0@20, 7@36

29.9@5, 33.4@20, 41@40

37.8@23

Wismer and Christie 1987

 

Table 2.4-2 (CONT.)

Focus Species Lethal Temperature Thresholds

Species

Lower Incipient Lethal Temperature1,2

Upper Incipient Lethal Temperature1,3

Critical Thermal Maximum1,4

Data Source

American Eel

Eggs & Spawning Adults

Fry (Larvae)

Juveniles

Wismer and Christie 1987

Adults

Wismer and Christie 1987

Rock Bass

Eggs & Spawning Adults

Fry (Larvae)

Juveniles

37.5@23.9, 36@18

Wismer and Christie 1987

Adults

35@30

38

Wismer and Christie 1987, Becker 1983

Smallmouth Bass

Eggs & Spawning Adults

32.8@20

Coble 1975

Fry (Larvae)

4

35@20

38

Edwards et al. 1983

Juveniles

2@15, 10@26

37@35, 32.2@12.8

36.3@12.8

Wismer and Christie 1987

Adults

37@35

Wismer and Christie 1987

Largemouth Bass

Eggs & Spawning Adults

<10

29.1-32.3

36.7@20, 40.1@28

Stuber et al. 1982, Wismer and Christie 1987, Parkos and Wahl 2002

 

Table 2.4-2 (CONT.)

Focus Species Lethal Temperature Thresholds

Species

Lower Incipient Lethal Temperature1,2

Upper Incipient Lethal Temperature1,3

Critical Thermal Maximum1,4

Data Source

Fry (Larvae)

Juveniles

5@20, 11@30

13@20, 40@35

 

Wismer and Christies 1987

Adults

5.5@20, 11.8@30

32.5@20, 36.4@30

40.9@32

Wismer and Christie 1987, McCullough 1999

Yellow Perch

Eggs & Spawning Adults

3.7

21

Hokanson 1977

Fry (Larvae)

24@7.6, 26.6@15.8

34.8@7.6, 37.6@15.8

Wismer and Christie 1987

Juveniles

29.2-35

Krieger et al. 1983

Adults

1.1@11, 3.7@25

21@5, 32.3@25

35@22

Wismer and Christie 1987

Walleye

Eggs & Spawning Adults

2.2@11

31.2@11

Schneider et al. 2002

Fry (Larvae)

Juveniles

31.6@25.8, 27@8

Wismer and Christie 1987

Adults

8@25

28.9@7.2

34.3@23.3

Wismer and Christie 1987, Spotila et al. 1979

Greater Redhorse

Eggs & Spawning Adults

 

Table 2.4-2 (CONT.)

Focus Species Lethal Temperature Thresholds

Species

Lower Incipient Lethal Temperature1,2

Upper Incipient Lethal Temperature1,3

Critical Thermal Maximum1,4

Data Source

Fry (Larvae)

Juveniles

Adults

White Sucker

Eggs & Spawning Adults

2.9@21.2

31.5@21.1, 29@8.9

24

Twomey et al. 1984, McCormick et al. 1977

Fry (Larvae)

4.8@15.2, 6@21

28@10, 30@21

32

Wismer and Christie 1987, Twomey et al. 1984

Juveniles

2@20, 6@25

29@25, 26@5

31

Wismer and Christie 1987, Twomey et al. 1984

Adults

1

31.6

Twomey et al. 1984

Lake Sturgeon

Eggs & Spawning Adults

<10@14

Wang et al. 1985

Fry (Larvae)

Juveniles

Adults

Notes:

1Acclimation Temperature: Temperature that organism (embryo, larvae, juvenile, or adult) is acclimated to (acclimation temperatures, if available, are preceded by the @ symbol).

2Lower Incipient Lethal Temperature: The lower temperature value beyond which 50% of the population can no longer survive.  Values are given as a lower temperature in ºC the fish or embryos were suddenly subjected to (first value) and the acclimation temperature in ºC (example: 6@18).  Values for the highest and lowest acclimation temperatures tested are usually given.

3Upper Incipient Lethal Temperature: The upper temperature value beyond which 50% of the population can no longer survive.  Values are given as a higher temperature in ºC the fish or embryos were suddenly subjected to (first value) and the acclimation temperature in ºC (example: 32@18).  Values for the highest and lowest acclimation temperatures tested are usually given.

4Critical Thermal Maximum: The upper temperature value beyond which fish cannot survive.

‘ – ‘ indicates no data are available for this parameter.

 

Table 2.4-3

Focus Species Preferred Temperature Ranges

Species

Temperature Preferences ºC1

Data Source

Staging/ Migration Temperature,2

Spawning Temperature3

Nest Abandonment4

Preferred Temperature5

Chinook Salmon

Eggs & Spawning Adults

10.6-19.4

5.8-12.8 (2.2-16)

-

5.8-12.8 (2.2-18.9)

McCullough 1999

Fry (Larvae)

-

-

-

12-14 (0-24)

Raleigh et al. 1986, Becker 1983

Juveniles

-

-